1. Membrane currents initiated by intense, 20 microseconds flashes (photocurrents) were recorded from isolated salamander rods by combined extracellular suction electrodes and intracellular tight-seal electrodes either in current or voltage clamp mode. The magnitudes (mean +/- 2 S.E.M.) of the maximal photoresponses recorded by the suction and by the… (More)
Like retinal rods, cone photoreceptors contain cyclic GMP and light-activated phosphodiesterase. The cGMP phosphodiesterase cascade is thought to mediate phototransduction in rods. Biochemical assays of nucleotide content in cone-dominant retinas, however, have failed to demonstrate light-induced changes in cGMP. Changes in cyclic AMP following light… (More)
To test the hypothesis that cyclic GMP is the internal messenger coupling rhodopsin activation to membrane excitation in vertebrate rod photoreceptors, we used a novel technique combining measurement of membrane currents of isolated salamander rods with a suction electrode and the introduction of cyclic GMP through a whole-cell recording patch pipette.… (More)
Five patients with isolated ptosis and a paresis of ocular elevation in abduction consistent with an isolated superior division III nerve palsy are reported. In all instances the III nerve appeared to be involved before its reported anatomic bifurcation into a superior and an inferior division, in the anterior cavernous sinus.
We used 18-F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) to study eight patients with homonymous hemianopias or quadrantanopias due to ischemic lesions of the visual pathways. Four patients with ischemic damage to all or part of the occipital lobe had decreased glucose metabolism in the affected region. Three… (More)
We studied the activation of 3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) phosphodiesterase (PDE) by using a cell-permeant enzyme inhibitor. Rods of Ambystoma tigrinum held in a suction electrode were jumped into a stream of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), 0.01-1 mM. Initial transient light-sensitive currents fit the notion that dark and light-activated… (More)
The light-modulated current of vertebrate retinal rods flows through a 3',5'-cyclic GMP-dependent conductance located in the outer segment plasma membrane. We report the incorporation into planar bilayers of a conductance derived from vertebrate rod outer segment membranes specifically activated by cGMP but not by cAMP, 5'-GMP, GTP, or 5'-AMP. When the mean… (More)