W. Geoffrey Wright

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Recent behavioral experiments examining the siphon withdrawal reflex of Aplysia have revealed inhibitory effects of strong tail shock, a stimulus commonly used as an unconditioned stimulus in studies of associative and nonassociative learning in Aplysia. We utilized a reduced preparation to perform a cellular analysis of tail shock-induced inhibition in the(More)
The pattern of serotonin-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system of individuals of the amphipod Gammarus lacustris harboring polymorphid cystacanths was compared to the pattern seen in individuals not infected with acanthocephalans. Ventral nerve cords from both parasitized and nonparasitized amphipods showed the same bilateral pair of(More)
Although sensitization-related changes in the neural circuitry of withdrawal reflexes in Aplysia are well studied, relatively few studies address the organization of the modulatory components of sensitization. In particular, it is not known whether individual modulatory loci can simultaneously influence multiple reflex circuits. There is, however, evidence(More)
Differential classical conditioning of the gill-withdrawal response (GWR) in Aplysia can be elicited by training in which a conditioned stimulus (CS) delivered to one side of the siphon (the CS+) is paired with a noxious unconditioned stimulus (US; tail shock), while a second conditioned stimulus (the CS-), delivered to a different siphon site, is unpaired(More)
BACKGROUND Conventional methods of rehabilitation in patients with chronic, severe motor impairments after stroke usually do not lessen paresis. OBJECTIVE A novel therapeutic approach (assisted movement with enhanced sensation [AMES]) was employed in a medical device phase I clinical trial to reduce paresis and spasticity and, thereby, to improve motor(More)
Previous phylogenetic analyses of learning and memory in an opisthobranch lineage uncovered a correlation between two learning-related neuromodulatory traits and their associated behavioral phenotypes. In particular, serotonin-induced increases in sensory neuron spike duration and excitability, which are thought to underlie several facilitatory forms of(More)
Interesting cases of human quadrupedalism described by Tan and Colleagues (2005-2012) have attracted the attention of geneticists, neurologists, and anthropologists. Since his first publications in 2005, the main attention has focused on the genetic aspects of disorders that lead to quadrupedalism within an evolutionary framework. In recent years this area(More)
The marine mollusc Aplysia has proven very useful for a mechanistic analysis of behavioral modification. Among the stimuli used to modify the behavior of Aplysia, a noxious stimulus, tail shock, is one of the most effective. In addition to the extensively analyzed facilitatory effects of tail shock, recent work has demonstrated that it also produces marked(More)
We investigated the neurobiological basis of variation in sensitization between three aplysiid species: Aplysia californica, Phyllaplysia taylori and Dolabrifera dolabrifera. We tested two different forms of sensitization induced by a noxious tail shock: local sensitization, expressed near the site of shock, and general sensitization, tested at remote(More)
Technological advances that involve human sensorimotor processes can have both intended and unintended effects on the central nervous system (CNS). This mini review focuses on the use of virtual environments (VE) to augment brain functions by enhancing perception, eliciting automatic motor behavior, and inducing sensorimotor adaptation. VE technology is(More)