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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been widely used to investigate the development of white matter (WM). However, information about this development in healthy children younger than 2 years of age is lacking, and most previous studies have only measured fractional anisotropy (FA). This study used FA and radial and axonal diffusivities(More)
Systemic nicotine stimulates dopamine (DA) release in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) appear to be involved. However, it is not known whether the secretion of DA elicited by nicotine depends on the tonic and/or phasic activation of NMDA receptors by glutamate (Glu). To clarify this,(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Unlike conventional functional MR imaging where external sensory/cognitive paradigms are needed to specifically activate different regions of the brain, resting functional connectivity MR imaging acquires images in the absence of cognitive demands (a resting condition) and detects brain regions, which are highly temporally correlated.(More)
Nicotinic cholinergic receptors in the ventral tegmental area are required for the accumbal dopamine response to systemic nicotine. In contrast, the role of nicotinic receptors located within the nucleus accumbens itself has not been clarified for systemically administered nicotine. In the present study, in vivo microdialysis of accumbal dopamine secretion(More)
AIMS To investigate the trend in the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus during 1999-2008 in women living in urban Tianjin, China. METHODS A universal screening for gestational diabetes mellitus has become an integral part of the antenatal care in Tianjin, China from 1998. A total of 105,473 pregnant women living in the six urban districts of(More)
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a highly invasive cancer with a poor prognosis. Although microRNA (miRNA) transcripts have a crucial role in carcinogenesis and development, little information is known regarding the aberrant DNA methylation of miRNAs in PDAC. Using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation-chip analysis, we found that miR-615-5p was(More)
Long-term potentiation (LTP) of parallel fiber-Purkinje cell (PF-PC) synapses in the cerebellum has been suggested to underlie aspects of motor learning. Previous in vitro studies have primarily used low frequency PF stimulation conditioning paradigms to generate either presynaptic PF-PC LTP (4-8 Hz) or postsynaptic PF-PC LTP (1 Hz). Little is known about(More)
A disrupted allele (r1) of a cadherin gene (Ha_BtR) is genetically associated with incompletely recessive resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cry1Ac in a Cry1Ac-selected strain (GYBT) of Helicoverpa armigera. The r1 allele of Ha_BtR was introgressed into a susceptible SCD strain by crossing the GYBT strain to the SCD strain, followed by repeated(More)
In yeast, activation of ATG1/ATG13 kinase complex initiates autophagy. This mechanism of autophagy initiation is conserved, as unc-51-like kinase 1 (ULK1) and unc-51-like kinase 2 (ULK2) are two mammalian functional homologues of ATG1 and form similar complex with mammalian ATG13. Here, we report that both ULK1 and ULK2 are transcriptional targets of tumor(More)
BACKGROUND Recent experimental data indicate that the targeting of the costimulatory molecule CD40-ligand (CD154) may well offer an opportunity for tolerance induction in transplant recipients and patients with autoimmune diseases, although the optimal therapeutic strategy for clinical application of CD154 monoclonal antibody (mAb) is unclear. METHODS We(More)