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A moment estimator of, the coancestry coefficient for alleles within a population, was described by Weir & Cockerham in 1984 (100) and is still widely cited. The estimate is used by population geneticists to characterize population structure, by ecologists to estimate migration rates, by animal breeders to describe genetic variation, and by forensic(More)
Heritability allows a comparison of the relative importance of genes and environment to the variation of traits within and across populations. The concept of heritability and its definition as an estimable, dimensionless population parameter was introduced by Sewall Wright and Ronald Fisher nearly a century ago. Despite continuous misunderstandings and(More)
We estimate and partition genetic variation for height, body mass index (BMI), von Willebrand factor and QT interval (QTi) using 586,898 SNPs genotyped on 11,586 unrelated individuals. We estimate that ∼45%, ∼17%, ∼25% and ∼21% of the variance in height, BMI, von Willebrand factor and QTi, respectively, can be explained by all autosomal SNPs and a further(More)
Analysis of linkage disequilibrium D among restriction sites or bases in DNA sequences, arising from mutations in finite populations, depends on a knowledge of the variance-covariance structure of measures such as D2 between different pairs of sites. This requires evaluation of the eighth moments of gene frequencies among two, three, and four loci, and the(More)
The relative proportion of additive and non-additive variation for complex traits is important in evolutionary biology, medicine, and agriculture. We address a long-standing controversy and paradox about the contribution of non-additive genetic variation, namely that knowledge about biological pathways and gene networks imply that epistasis is important.(More)
Estimates of genetic population structure (F(ST)) were constructed from all autosomes in two large SNP data sets. The Perlegen data set contains genotypes on approximately 1 million SNPs segregating in all three samples of Americans of African, Asian, and European descent; and the Phase I HapMap data set contains genotypes on approximately 0.6 million SNPs(More)
The use of all available molecular markers in statistical models for prediction of quantitative traits has led to what could be termed a genomic-assisted selection paradigm in animal and plant breeding. This article provides a critical review of some theoretical and statistical concepts in the context of genomic-assisted genetic evaluation of animals and(More)
Although the expected relationship or proportion of genome shared by pairs of relatives can be obtained from their pedigrees, the actual quantities deviate as a consequence of Mendelian sampling and depend on the number of chromosomes and map length. Formulae have been published previously for the variance of actual relationship for a number of specific(More)
A general model is developed for predicting the genetic variance within populations and the rate of divergence of population mean phenotypes for quantitative traits under the joint operation of random sampling drift and mutation in the absence of selection. In addition to incorporating the dominance effects of mutant alleles, the model yields some insight(More)