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Histidyl-tRNA synthetase (HisRS) is responsible for the synthesis of histidyl-transfer RNA, which is essential for the incorporation of histidine into proteins. This amino acid has uniquely moderate basic properties and is an important group in many catalytic functions of enzymes. A compilation of currently known primary structures of HisRS shows that the(More)
The ATP analog specificities of the homogeneous cGMP-dependent protein kinase and the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase have been compared by the ability of 27 analogs to compete with ATP in the protein kinase reaction. Although the data suggest general similarities between the ATP sites of the two homologous cyclic-nucleotide-dependent(More)
Peptide synthetases consist of linearly arranged catalytic units, which by sequence alignment show equally spaced amino-acid-activating segments/modules of 600-700 amino acid residues. The consensus sequence comprises a new class of sequence motifs which are shared by some carboxyl-activating enzymes, but which do not occur in aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases.(More)
For discrimination between phenylalanine and 18 other naturally occurring non-cognate amino acids by the class II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase specific for phenylalanine, discrimination factors, D, of 190-6300 have been determined from kcal and K(m) values. Generally, phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase is more specific than the class II enzymes specific for Lys and(More)
Glutamyl-tRNA synthetase (GluRS) belongs to the class I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and shows several similarities with glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase concerning structure and catalytic properties. Phylogenetic studies suggested that both diverged from an ancestral glutamyl-tRNA synthetase responsible for the gluta-mylation of tRNA(Glu) and tRNA(Gln), and whose(More)
The ATP substrate site in the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor was mapped by using a series of 26 ATP derivatives with modifications at the base, ribose or triphosphate moiety. Ki values for these derivatives were determined by competition with [gamma-32P]ATP. The enzyme seems to interact specifically with the beta-phosphate in an ion-pair bond with(More)
The ATP substrate site of a second messenger-independent protein kinase of the type NII from porcine liver nuclei was mapped using a series of 30 ATP derivatives with modifications at the base, ribose or triphosphate moiety. Ki values for these derivatives were determined by competition with [gamma-32P]ATP; they range from 4 microM to 1.5 mM. For a(More)
The extracellular loop of P2X channel proteins contains a sequence stretch (positions 170-330) that exhibits similarities with the catalytic domains of class II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases as shown by secondary structure predictions and sequence alignments. The arrangement of several conserved cysteines (positions 110-170) shows similarities with metal(More)
Fifteen analogs of ATP have been tested in the ATP/PPi pyrophosphate exchange and the aminoacylation of arginyl-tRNA synthetase from E. coli K12. Six compounds are substrates in both reactions, whereas seven of the triphosphates were inhibitors for both reactions. The Km, V and Ki values have been determined. The enzyme is less specific against base(More)
Glycyl-tRNA synthetase, a class II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase, catalyzes the synthesis of glycyl-tRNA, which is required to insert glycine into proteins. In a side reaction the enzyme also synthesizes dinuceloside polyphosphates, which probably participate in regulation of cell functions. Glycine is the smallest amino acid occurring in natural proteins,(More)