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Cyclooxygenase type-2 (COX-2) is overexpressed in malignant tumours including breast cancers, though the mechanism of upregulation is unclear. This study aimed to determine COX-2 expression in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in comparison to invasive breast cancer (IBC) and normal breast, and also to investigate the relationship of COX-2 expression with(More)
In lung cancer cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression has been reported to stabilise survivin, an inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) which prevents cell death by blocking activated caspases. COX-2 expression limits the ubiquitination of survivin, protecting it from degradation. To determine if COX-2 expression in breast cancer showed an association with survivin(More)
The factors controlling epithelial proliferation in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) are unclear. Antiestrogens are effective in the prevention of the majority of estrogen receptor-positive, but not estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancers, which suggests that other factor(s) are promoting proliferation in ER-negative DCIS. Mutated or overexpressed(More)
Following breast-conserving surgery for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), the presence of comedo necrosis reportedly predicts for higher rates of post-operative recurrence. To examine the role of programmed cell death (apoptosis) in the aetiology of the cell death described as comedo necrosis, we studied 58 DCIS samples, using light microscopy, for(More)
Adjuvant antiestrogen (AE) therapy has been proposed for all women with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). However, many cases of DCIS are of the high-grade, estrogen receptor (ER)-negative subtype that are unlikely to respond to AE treatment. Hormonal agents work by increasing apoptosis and/or decreasing cell proliferation; therefore, we studied the effect(More)
BACKGROUND Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) represents 20%-30% of breast cancers detected by clinical screening (i.e., mammography). More than 50% of DCIS lesions may be estrogen receptor negative and, therefore, hormone independent. However, the role of estrogen in the natural history of DCIS is unknown. PURPOSE A novel in vivo (i.e., xenograft) model was(More)
Mastectomy probably represents over-treatment for the majority of women with screen detected ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and breast-conserving surgery is now widely advocated. In this study, biopsy cavity shavings were used to ensure complete excision in 129 women undergoing breast-conserving surgery for screen detected DCIS. A margin was considered(More)
This paper describes a carving machine which is the most recently developed module in the suite of CAD/CAM equipment for high technology manufacture and supply of prostheses. It provides the link between the Computer Aided Socket Design (CASD) system and the Rapidform socket manufacturing process. Using the coordinate data produced by the CASD system this(More)
Adjuvant antioestrogen therapy with tamoxifen is recommended for all women following breast-conserving surgery for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to reduce local recurrence, despite 50% of lesions being oestrogen receptor (OR) negative. We have investigated the response to hormone manipulation in DCIS by studying changes in epithelial proliferation and(More)