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BACKGROUND A decrease in risk of urinary-tract infection is one of the most commonly given reasons for circumcision of newborn boys. Previous studies have reported rates of UTI to be 10-20 times higher in uncircumcised than in circumcised boys. This population-based cohort study followed neonates in Ontario, Canada, prospectively to study the relation(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the quality of the evidence on which current recommendations for routine diagnostic imaging for childhood urinary tract infection are based. METHODS A systematic overview of the literature using the MEDLINE database (1966 to October 1994), article bibliographies, and a manual search of current publications using Current Contents, was(More)
OBJECTIVES (1) To evaluate the evidence relating to the effectiveness of methods to prevent and treat obesity, and (2) to provide recommendations for the prevention and treatment of obesity in adults aged 18 to 65 years and for the measurement of the body mass index (BMI) as part of a periodic health examination. OPTIONS In adults with obesity (BMI(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether over-the-counter cold medications have been shown to be effective in relieving symptoms in children, adolescents, and adults. DATA SOURCES The MEDLINE database using the key words combined with medications and research and review articles. Articles were retrieved if they were written in English and published between January(More)
Recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) affects 10% to 18% of school-age children and is caused by obvious organic pathology in fewer than 10% of cases. Two recent studies do not support previous beliefs that most RAP is psychogenic. Studies have shown disorders of bowel motility in children with RAP similar to those of adult irritable bowel syndrome (IBS);(More)
BACKGROUND There has been no systematic appraisal of the evidence regarding the effectiveness of prophylactic inhaled steroids in childhood asthma. OBJECTIVE We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of prophylactic inhaled steroids in childhood asthma. METHODS A MEDLINE search from January 1966 through December 1996 was used to identify pertinent(More)
The rates of school injuries were examined by means of a prospective study of 212 schools during the 1981-82 school year. The results showed an annual incidence rate of 5.4 injury events/100 children, which appears to be an underestimate of the actual rate. Of all the injury events 28.7% resulted in serious injuries. Injuries were significantly more(More)
Community screening programs seek to detect disorders or risk factors in seemingly healthy persons. The following seven guidelines for determining whether a screening program is likely to be effective are proposed and discussed: (1) Has the effectiveness of the program been demonstrated in a randomized trial? (2) Are efficacious treatments available? (3)(More)