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OBJECTIVE The authors sought to carefully test, by using a technique of continuous CSF sampling, the hypothesis that basal elevations in CSF corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) concentrations exist in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). They also sought to assess the relationship among PTSD symptoms, adrenocortical activity, and CSF CRH(More)
Very little is known about the physiologic significance of the gut-brain hormone cholecystokinin (CCK) in the human central nervous system, although the hormone has been hypothesized to be involved in the regulation of both appetite and anxiety. We continuously collected lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) via indwelling subarachnoid catheters in ten normal(More)
Opioid-mediated analgesia develops in experimental animals following traumatic stress and increased opioid-mediated analgesia has been observed in combat veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). These observations have led to the hypothesis that increased central nervous system (CNS) opioidergic activity exists in patients with PTSD. However,(More)
The plasma cortisol rhythm in man has been presumed to be an endogenous circadian rhythm, synchronized by some external stimulus to an exact 24-h period. Sleep/wake and 'social activity' cycles have been considered as candidates for this synchronizer. Previous studies have suggested that the dark/light phase shifts associated with the sleep-wake cycle may(More)
Abnormalities in corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) secretion, noradrenergic neurotransmission, and serotonergic activity in the central nervous system (CNS) have all been hypothesized to exist in alcoholic patients, as have abnormalities in hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal function. To test these hypotheses, we continuously sampled cerebrospinal fluid(More)
Six normal and 8 neoplastic adrenal medullae were assayed for several immunoreactive (IR) proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and hypothalamic peptides. IR-POMC peptides were found in normal and tumor tissue in concentrations ranging from 0.0003 to 0.1% of those in pituitary. Their molecular sizes resembled those of pituitary intermediate lobe POMC peptides. No(More)
Pituitary ACTH synthesis and secretion are positively regulated by hypothalamic factors and negatively regulated by adrenal corticosteroids. Negative hypothalamic regulation of pituitary ACTH synthesis and secretion has been postulated, but not proved. The search for a hypothalamic corticotropin release-inhibiting factor has recently focused on peptides(More)
BACKGROUND One night of sleep deprivation induces a brief remission in about half of depressed patients. Subclinical hypothyroidism may be associated with depression, and changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid function may affect the mood response to sleep deprivation. We wished to define precisely the status of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis of(More)
Arginine vasopressin (AVP) stimulates biphasic release of ACTH from anterior pituitary corticotrophs. The response consists of an initial transient spike phase lasting less than 3 min and a subsequent sustained plateau phase that persists for as long as AVP is present. AVP also acts synergistically with CRF on ACTH release. We have previously shown that the(More)
Fludrocortisone has been a mainstay of therapy for orthostatic hypotension for many years. Clinical experience suggests that there exists a substantial interindividual variation in responsiveness to the drug. To assess this, we have developed an assay that permits measurement of the low concentrations of fludrocortisone found in human plasma.(More)