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Several lines of evidence implicate the E2F transcription factor as an important component of cell proliferation control. First, E2F binding sites are found in the promoters of genes responsive to proliferation signals and the level of E2F binding activity increases at a time when many of these genes are activated. Second, the tumour suppressor protein Rb,(More)
Activator proteins that control transcription initiation by RNA polymerase II usually have two domains: one binds to DNA, and the other activates transcription. A particularly potent acidic activation domain at the C terminus of the herpes simplex virus protein VP16 binds directly and selectively to the human and yeast TATA box-binding factor TFIID. We have(More)
The interaction between the chimeric activator GAL4-VP16, consisting of the DNA binding domain of GAL4 and the acidic activation domain of VP16, and its target in the transcriptional machinery was studied in vitro. GAL4-VP16 stimulated transcription from a promoter bearing GAL4 sites, and greatly inhibited transcription from a promoter bearing binding sites(More)
Virion protein 16 (VP16) of herpes simplex virus type 1 contains an acidic transcriptional activation domain. Missense mutations within this domain have provided insights into the structural elements critical for its function. Net negative charge contributed to, but was not sufficient for, transcriptional activation by VP16. A putative amphipathic alpha(More)
The retinoblastoma protein (pRb) is a cell cycle regulator inactivated in most human cancers. Loss of pRb function results from mutations in the gene coding for pRb or for any of its upstream regulators. Although pRb is predominantly known as a cell cycle repressor, our data point to additional pRb functions in cell adhesion. Our data show that pRb(More)
The cellular transcription factor E2F appears to be a target for the regulatory action of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene product. The recent isolation of the E2F1 cDNA clone, which encodes a polypeptide with properties characteristic of E2F, has now allowed a more detailed analysis of the regulation of E2F function by Rb as well as the Rb-related(More)
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a potent tumorigenic factor. Its alpha subunit (HIF-1alpha), which is tightly regulated in normal tissues, is elevated in tumors due to hypoxia and overactive growth signaling pathways. Although much is known about HIF-1alpha regulation in cancer cells, crucial molecular targets that affect HIF-1alpha levels modulated(More)
BACKGROUND Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) are promising anticancer drugs; however, the molecular mechanisms leading to HDACi-induced cell death have not been well understood and no clear mechanism of resistance has been elucidated to explain limited efficacy of HDACis in clinical trials. METHODS AND FINDINGS Here, we show that protein levels of(More)
HLM006474 was identified using a computer-based virtual screen and the known crystal structure of the DNA-bound E2F4/DP2 heterodimer. Treatment of multiple cell lines with HLM006474 resulted in the loss of intracellular E2F4 DNA-binding activity as measured by electrophoretic mobility shift assay within hours. Overnight exposure to HLM006474 resulted in(More)
Cytokine and growth factor signaling pathways involving STAT3 are frequently constitutively activated in many human primary tumors, and are known for the transcriptional role they play in controlling cell growth and cell cycle progression. However, the extent of STAT3's reach on transcriptional control of the genome as a whole remains an important question.(More)