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BACKGROUND Bypass surgery in the elderly (age >70 years) has increased mortality and morbidity, which may be a consequence of cardiopulmonary bypass. We compare the outcomes of a cohort of elderly off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) patients with elderly conventional coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) patients. METHODS Chart and provincial cardiac(More)
When intense adapting lights are turned off, the pupil of the turtle, Pseudemys scripta elegans, enlarges. The recovery functions for pupillary dilation have different time constants that are defined by red- and green-sensitive cones and rods as they are affected by prior light adaptation and time in the dark. Pupillary area related to dilation responds(More)
Autonomous robot execution of surgical sub-tasks has the potential to reduce surgeon fatigue and facilitate supervised tele-surgery. This paper considers the sub-task of surgical debridement: removing dead or damaged tissue fragments to allow the remaining healthy tissue to heal. We present an autonomous multilateral surgical debridement system using the(More)
The supporters of psychogeriatric patients attending 5-day hospitals were asked to complete questionnaires concerning the particular problems they experienced in caring for their patients at home. The information provided by the supporter was then related to measures of mood, self-reported strain, and outcome 12 mth from the patients' first attendance. The(More)
BACKGROUND Recent articles have commented on the "learning curve" in robotic-assisted coronary artery bypass grafting. We systematically studied this phenomenon using standard statistical and cumulative sum (CUSUM) failure methods. METHODS Ninety patients underwent internal thoracic artery (ITA) takedown and an attempt at ITA to coronary bypass on the(More)
BACKGROUND Myocardial revascularization without cardiopulmonary bypass has been proposed as a potential therapeutic alternative in high-risk patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. To evaluate this possibility we compared 15 high-risk (HR) patients in whom minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass grafting was used as the method of(More)
BACKGROUND New technology has enabled surgeons to attempt totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass grafting. Our purpose was to compare three different techniques of totally endoscopic anastomosis using a porcine animal model. METHODS Porcine hearts were excised and the right coronary artery was dissected free for use as an arterial graft. The hearts(More)
We sought to determine the efficacy of using robotic assistance to facilitate endoscopic harvesting of internal thoracic arteries (ITAs). A total of 104 patients had ITAs harvested endoscopically with use of both the AESOP 3000 system (Computer Motion, Goleta, CA, U.S.A.) and Zeus robotic telesurgical system (Computer Motion). All ITAs were harvested with a(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIM We have shown that cumulative sum (CUSUM) failure analysis may be more sensitive than standard statistical methods in detecting a cluster of adverse patient outcomes after cardiac surgical procedures. We therefore applied CUSUM, as well as standard statistical techniques, to analyze a surgeon's experience with off-pump coronary artery(More)