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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Transcranial color-coded duplex sonography (TCCS) of intracranial veins and sinuses in adults is a new, emerging application of ultrasonographic imaging. This study reports a standardized examination protocol for venous TCCS and provides reference data for clinical application. METHODS In 130 healthy volunteers (mean age,(More)
Purpose of this study was to define a subgroup of TIA/stroke patients who should be examined by transthoracal and transesophageal echocardiography or Holter-electrocardiography to identify those with cardiogenic brain embolism reliably; 300 consecutive patients with acute focal brain ischemia underwent a standardized diagnostic protocol for the evaluation(More)
Lyme Borreliosis is an infectious disorder caused directly by Borrelia burgdorferi. Secondary immunological mechanisms might play an additional pathogenetic role. The natural course of the disease in stage I and II is in most cases benign, therefore the influence of antibiotic therapy is difficult to assess. Double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized(More)
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) permits efficient visualization of white matter lesions (WML). A growing body of literature deals with the correlation of WML and cognitive dysfunction with conflicting results. We studied the influence of lesion pattern as well as size by analyzing MRI and psychometric test performance in 2 patient collectives with(More)
To ascertain the varieties of neuroborreliosis, 330 patients were identified at the Departments of Neurology in Würzburg and Giessen from 1979 to 1994. Patients who fullfilled at least one of three strict case definitions based on clinical and laboratory criteria were included in the study. Ninety-one per cent of the patients had second-stage(More)
BACKGROUND Patent foramen ovale as a possible stroke risk factor can be diagnosed with transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) by detecting intravenous contrast medium crossing from the right to the left atrium. The present study evaluates the reliability of this method. SUMMARY OF REPORT We performed TCD and transesophageal echocardiography simultaneously(More)
Clinical, CT and EEG findings of 100 consecutive patients suffering from epileptic seizures following hemispheric cerebral infarction were evaluated retrospectively. All patients were followed up for an average of 49 months. Twelve patients suffered from cardiogenic brain embolism, 20 had an occlusive disease of the internal cerebral artery. Forty-seven(More)
The VACTERL association of vertebral, anal, cardiovascular, tracheo-esophageal, renal, and limb defects is one of the more common congenital disorders with limb deficiency arising during blastogenesis. The cause is probably heterogeneous; a molecular basis has not yet been defined. We report on a family in which a female infant with VACTERL was born in 1977(More)
We evaluated the efficacy of transcranial Doppler ultrasonography in 23 patients suffering from acute middle cerebral artery occlusion. The diagnosis of occlusion was most suggestive when all basal arteries except the affected middle cerebral artery were detectable. Enhanced blood flow velocity in the anterior cerebral artery due to leptomeningeal(More)