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Established guidelines for causal inference in epidemiological studies may be inappropriate for genetic associations. A consensus process was used to develop guidance criteria for assessing cumulative epidemiologic evidence in genetic associations. A proposed semi-quantitative index assigns three levels for the amount of evidence, extent of replication, and(More)
BACKGROUND Sixteen children diagnosed with acute leukemia between 1997 and 2002 lived in Churchill County, Nevada, at the time of or before their illness. Considering the county population and statewide cancer rate, fewer than two cases would be expected. OBJECTIVES In March 2001, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention led federal, state, and(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been linked to higher heart failure (HF) risk. Anemia is a common consequence of CKD, and recent evidence suggests that anemia is a risk factor for HF. The purpose of this study was to examine among patients with HF, the association between CKD, anemia and inhospital mortality and early readmission. METHODS We(More)
BACKGROUND We previously conducted a study to assess whether household exposures to tap water increased an individual's internal dose of trihalomethanes (THMs). Increases in blood THM levels among subjects who showered or bathed were variable, with increased levels tending to cluster in two groups. OBJECTIVES Our goal was to assess the importance of(More)
BACKGROUND Better information on lung cancer occurrence in lifelong nonsmokers is needed to understand gender and racial disparities and to examine how factors other than active smoking influence risk in different time periods and geographic regions. METHODS AND FINDINGS We pooled information on lung cancer incidence and/or death rates among self-reported(More)
which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Low vitamin D status is common globally and is associated with multiple disease outcomes. Understanding the correlates of vitamin D status will help guide clinical practice, research, and interpretation of studies.(More)
BACKGROUND Analytic methods commonly used in epidemiology do not account for spatial correlation between observations. In regression analyses, this omission can bias parameter estimates and yield incorrect standard error estimates. We present a Bayesian hierarchical model (BHM) approach that accounts for spatial correlation, and illustrate its strengths and(More)
BACKGROUND Identifying and characterizing how mixtures of exposures are associated with health endpoints is challenging. We demonstrate how classification and regression trees can be used to generate hypotheses regarding joint effects from exposure mixtures. METHODS We illustrate the approach by investigating the joint effects of CO, NO2, O3, and PM2.5 on(More)
BACKGROUND We suggest that the need to account for systematic error may explain the apparent lack of agreement among studies of maternal dietary methylmercury exposure and neuropsychological testing outcomes in children, a topic of ongoing debate. METHODS These sensitivity analyses address the possible role of systematic error on reported associations(More)
BACKGROUND In time-series studies of the health effects of urban air pollutants, decisions must be made about how to characterize pollutant levels within the airshed. METHODS Emergency department visits for pediatric asthma exacerbations were collected from Atlanta hospitals. Concentrations of carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide,(More)