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We examined 12,026 fungal air samples (9,619 indoor samples and 2,407 outdoor samples) from 1,717 buildings located across the United States; these samples were collected during indoor air quality investigations performed from 1996 to 1998. For all buildings, both indoor and outdoor air samples were collected with an Andersen N6 sampler. The culturable(More)
Polybrominated biphenyl (PBB), a flame-retardant material, was introduced into the food chain in Michigan in 1973 due to a manufacturing and distribution mistake. Following public concern about the long-term health effects of PBB in humans, a cohort of PBB-exposed Michigan residents was assembled in 1975. We initiated this study to determine the half-life(More)
The identification of DNA polymorphisms makes it possible to classify trisomy 21 according to the parental origin and stage (meiosis I [MI], meiosis II [MII], or postzygotic mitotic) of the chromosomal error. Studying the effect of parental age on these subgroups could shed light on parental exposures and their timing. From 1989 through 1993, 170 infants(More)
BACKGROUND Sixteen children diagnosed with acute leukemia between 1997 and 2002 lived in Churchill County, Nevada, at the time of or before their illness. Considering the county population and statewide cancer rate, fewer than two cases would be expected. OBJECTIVES In March 2001, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention led federal, state, and(More)
BACKGROUND Emergency department (ED) visit and hospital admissions (HA) data have been an indispensible resource for assessing acute morbidity impacts of air pollution. ED visits and HAs are types of health care visits with similarities, but also potentially important differences. Little previous information is available regarding the impact of health care(More)
BACKGROUND Suicide is a serious risk factor in major depressive disorder. Paradoxical emergence of suicidal ideation or behavior during antidepressant treatment has been reported in isolated cases. An evaluation was undertaken to assess the risk of suicidality during treatment with fluvoxamine, a serotonin selective reuptake inhibitor. METHOD(More)
BACKGROUND Analytic methods commonly used in epidemiology do not account for spatial correlation between observations. In regression analyses, this omission can bias parameter estimates and yield incorrect standard error estimates. We present a Bayesian hierarchical model (BHM) approach that accounts for spatial correlation, and illustrate its strengths and(More)
BACKGROUND Identifying and characterizing how mixtures of exposures are associated with health endpoints is challenging. We demonstrate how classification and regression trees can be used to generate hypotheses regarding joint effects from exposure mixtures. METHODS We illustrate the approach by investigating the joint effects of CO, NO2, O3, and PM2.5 on(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been linked to higher heart failure (HF) risk. Anemia is a common consequence of CKD, and recent evidence suggests that anemia is a risk factor for HF. The purpose of this study was to examine among patients with HF, the association between CKD, anemia and inhospital mortality and early readmission. METHODS We(More)
BACKGROUND We suggest that the need to account for systematic error may explain the apparent lack of agreement among studies of maternal dietary methylmercury exposure and neuropsychological testing outcomes in children, a topic of ongoing debate. METHODS These sensitivity analyses address the possible role of systematic error on reported associations(More)