W. D. Timberlake

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Associative and behavior systems accounts of Pavlovian conditioning have different emphases. The traditional associative account has focused on the role of the unconditional stimulus (US) in strengthening stimulus associations according to a set of general laws. The behavior systems account has focused on the relation of conditional responding to the(More)
  • W Timberlake
  • Journal of the experimental analysis of behavior
  • 1993
Most traditional conceptions of reinforcement are based on a simple causal model in which responding is strengthened by the presentation of a reinforcer. I argue that reinforcement is better viewed as the outcome of constraint of a functioning causal system comprised of multiple interrelated causal sequences, complex linkages between causes and effects, and(More)
Scheduled daily injections of methamphetamine (MA) produced locomotor activity that preceded and followed the usual time of injection in rats housed under conditions of constant, moderately dim light and temporally distributed feeding. A circadian basis for pre-injection time activity was supported by its anticipatory timing in the apparent absence of(More)
Misbehavior by rats, in the form of unnecessary and species-typical pawing, nosing, carrying, chewing, and retrieving a rolling ball bearing, was produced by pairing the ball bearing with food (Pavlovian procedure, Experiments 1 and 2) or by requiring contact with the ball bearing for food (operant procedure, Experiments 4 and 5). Misbehavior occurred both(More)
The present study explored bidirectional excitatory conditioning using the behavior systems assumption that conditioned responding is related to a sequence of search modes preceding and following the unconditioned stimulus. In Experiment 1a, rats were initially trained with either a forward serial conditioned stimulus (CS) (FCSF– FCSI–FCSN—Food; the(More)
This article develops a general behavior-regulation model of learned performance related to the equilibrium approach of Timberlake ( 1980) and Timberlake and Allison ( 1974). The model is based on four assumptions: (a) Both the instrumental and contingent responses are regulated with respect to their own set point~; (b) these set points can be measured in a(More)
A number of studies have observed that animals experiencing positive energy budgets tend to prefer alternatives offering constant amounts of food over those offering variable amounts of food, i.e. they tend to be risk averse. This observation, and the related finding that small animals experiencing negative energy budgets have been observed to prefer(More)
Separation of the contingent and noncontingent effects of a schedule on amount of instrumental responding is desirable but difficult in schedules that involve instrumental and contingent responses that are either highly probable or very similar. Three studies in which rats were required to lick a solution of .1% saccharin for access to a preferred solution(More)
This research examined three explanations for the "superstitious" behavior of pigeons under frequent fixed-time delivery of food: accidental response-reward contingency, stimulus substitution, and elicited species-typical appetitive behavior. The behavior observed in these studies consisted of occasional postfood locomotion away from the food hopper, and a(More)
An important tenet of optimal foraging theory is that foragers compare prey densities in alternative patches to determine an optimal distribution of foraging behavior over time. A critical question is over what time period (time horizon) this integration of information and behavior occurs. Recent research has indicated that rats do not compare food density(More)