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Previous work suggested that cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) is genetically distinct from isolated cleft secondary palate (CP). Mutations in the Bmp target gene Msx1 in families with both forms of orofacial clefting has implicated Bmp signaling in both pathways. To dissect the function of Bmp signaling in orofacial clefting, we conditionally(More)
BACKGROUND Gastric cancer is generally thought to arise through a series of gastric mucosal changes, but the determinants of the precancerous lesions are not well understood. To identify such determinants, we launched a follow-up study in 1989-1990 among 3433 adults in Linqu County, China, a region with very high rates of gastric cancer. METHODS Data on(More)
In the developing limb, Bmp4 is expressed in the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) and underlying mesoderm. Insight into the function of Bmp4 in limb development has been hampered by the early embryonic lethality of Bmp4 null embryos. We directly investigated Bmp4 using a conditional null allele of Bmp4 and the Prx1(cre) transgene to inactivate Bmp4 in limb bud(More)
Neural tube closure is a critical morphogenetic event that is regulated by dynamic changes in cell shape and behavior. Although previous studies have uncovered a central role for the non-canonical Wnt signaling pathway in neural tube closure, the underlying mechanism remains poorly resolved. Here, we show that the missing in metastasis (MIM; Mtss1) protein,(More)
The Mini-Chromosome Maintenance (MCM) proteins are candidates of replicative DNA helicase in eukarya and archaea. Here we report a 2.8 A crystal structure of the N-terminal domain (residues 1-268) of the Sulfolobus solfataricus MCM (Sso MCM) protein. The structure reveals single-hexameric ring-like architecture, at variance from the protein of(More)
DNA repair is required to maintain genome stability in stem cells and early embryos. At critical junctures, oxidative damage to DNA requires the base excision repair (BER) pathway. Since early zebrafish embryos lack the major polymerase in BER, DNA polymerase ß, repair proceeds via replicative polymerases, even though there is ample polb mRNA. Here, we(More)
BACKGROUND Epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes associated with promoter methylation is considered to be a hallmark of oncogenesis. RASSF1A is a candidate tumor suppressor gene which was found to be inactivated in many human cancers. Although we have had a preliminary cognition about the function of RASSF1A, the exact mechanisms about how RASSF1A(More)
BACKGROUND Little empirical research has examined how cultural factors influence psychosocial factors for heroin drug use. The objectives of the study were to investigate the levels of individualism and collectivism among young adolescents and how cultural differences were associated with the constructs of the Theory of Planned Behavior and other(More)
Human placenta-derived adherent cells (PDAC cells) are a culture expanded, undifferentiated mesenchymal-like population derived from full-term placental tissue, with immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. PDA-001 (cenplacel-L), an intravenous formulation of PDAC cells, is in clinical development for the treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory(More)
BACKGROUND The aim of this study is to examine the safety and distribution of Ad-EGFP-MDR1, an adenovirus encoding human multidurg resistance gene (human MDR1), in the mice colon carcinoma model. METHODS After bone marrow cells (BMCs) were infected with Ad-EGFP-MDR1, they were administered by intra bone marrow-bone marrow transplantation (IBM-BMT). Total(More)