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Protein misfolding is the basis of a number of human diseases and presents an obstacle to the production of soluble recombinant proteins. We present a general method to assess the solubility and folding of proteins in vivo. The basis of this assay is structural complementation between the alpha- and omega- fragments of beta-galactosidase (beta-gal). Fusions(More)
Regulated proteolysis is important for maintaining appropriate cellular levels of many proteins. The bulk of intracellular protein degradation is catalyzed by the proteasome. Recently, the centrosome was identified as a novel site for concentration of the proteasome and associated regulatory proteins (Wigley, W. C., Fabunmi, R. P., Lee, M. G., Marino, C.(More)
PA28 is an interferon (gamma) (IFN(gamma)) inducible proteasome activator required for presentation of certain major histocompatibility (MHC) class I antigens. Under basal conditions in HeLa and Hep2 cells, a portion of nuclear PA28 is concentrated at promyelocytic leukemia oncoprotein (PML)-containing bodies also commonly known as PODs or ND10. IFN(gamma)(More)
A central function of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-expressing tissues is the secretion of fluid containing 100-140 mM HCO3-. High levels of HCO3- maintain secreted proteins such as mucins (all tissues) and digestive enzymes (pancreas) in a soluble and/or inactive state. HCO3- secretion is impaired in CF in all CFTR-expressing,(More)
Ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI) triggers expression of adaptive (protective) and maladaptive genes. Agents that increase expression of protective genes should provide a therapeutic benefit. We now report that bardoxolone methyl (BARD) ameliorates ischemic murine AKI as assessed by both renal function and pathology. BARD may exert its beneficial effect by(More)
Bardoxolone methyl and related triterpenoids are well tolerated and efficacious in numerous animal models potentially relevant to patients with Type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease. These agents enhance glucose control and regulate lipid accumulation in rodent models of diabetes and obesity, and improve renal function, reduce inflammation, and prevent(More)
The linear sequence of amino acids contains all the necessary information for a protein to fold into its unique three-dimensional structure. Native protein sequences are known to accomplish this by promoting the formation of stable, kinetically accessible structures. Here we describe a Pro residue in the center of the third transmembrane helix of the cystic(More)
Novel monocyclic cyanoenones examined to date display unique features regarding chemical reactivity as Michael acceptors and biological potency. Remarkably, in some biological assays, the simple structure is more potent than pentacyclic triterpenoids (e.g., CDDO and bardoxolone methyl) and tricycles (e.g., TBE-31). Among monocyclic cyanoenones, 1 is a(More)
The multipass membrane protein APH-1, found in the gamma-secretase complex together with presenilin, nicastrin, and PEN-2, is essential for Notch signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos and is required for intramembrane proteolysis of Notch and beta-amyloid precursor protein in mammalian and Drosophila cells. In C. elegans, a mutation of the conserved(More)
Bardoxolone methyl, a synthetic triterpenoid, improves the estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in patients with chronic kidney disease and type 2 diabetes. Since the contractile activity of mesangial cells may influence glomerular filtration, we evaluated the effect of the synthetic triterpenoid RTA 405, with structural similarity to bardoxolone(More)