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Treatment of infected patients with ABT-538, an inhibitor of the protease of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), causes plasma HIV-1 levels to decrease exponentially (mean half-life, 2.1 +/- 0.4 days) and CD4 lymphocyte counts to rise substantially. Minimum estimates of HIV-1 production and clearance and of CD4 lymphocyte turnover indicate that(More)
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder, starting in early childhood and persisting into adulthood in the majority of cases. Family and twin studies have demonstrated the importance of genetic factors and candidate gene association studies have identified several loci that exert small but significant effects(More)
The genetic loci agouti and extension control the relative amounts of eumelanin (brown-black) and phaeomelanin (yellow-red) pigments in mammals: extension encodes the receptor for melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) and agouti encodes a novel 131-amino-acid protein containing a signal sequence. Agouti, which is produced in the hair follicle, acts on(More)
CONTEXT Deficits in cerebral glucose utilization have been identified in patients with cognitive dysfunction attributed to various disease processes, but their prognostic and diagnostic value remains to be defined. OBJECTIVE To assess the sensitivity and specificity with which cerebral metabolic patterns at a single point in time forecast subsequent(More)
In this paper, we demonstrate an approach by which some evoked neuronal events can be probed by functional MRI (fMRI) signal with temporal resolution at the time scale of tens of milliseconds. The approach is based on the close relationship between neuronal electrical events and fMRI signal that is experimentally demonstrated in concurrent fMRI and(More)
The rab11 GTPase has been localized to both the Golgi and recycling endosomes; however, its Golgi-associated function has remained obscure. In this study, rab11 function in exocytic transport was analyzed by using two independent means to perturb its activity. First, expression of the dominant interfering rab11S25N mutant protein led to a significant(More)
Solubilization of bone mineral by osteoclasts depends on the formation of an acidic extracellular compartment through the action of a V-proton pump that has not yet been characterized at the molecular level. We previously cloned a gene (Atp6i, for V-proton pump, H+ transporting (vacuolar proton pump) member I) encoding a putative osteoclast-specific proton(More)
Jackson-Weiss syndrome is an autosomal dominant condition characterized by craniosynostosis, foot anomalies and great phenotypic variability. Recently mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) have been found in patients with another craniosynostotic syndrome, Crouzon syndrome. FGFR2 is a member of the tyrosine kinase receptor superfamily,(More)
Despite extensive studies, there are still many unanswered questions regarding the mechanism of hedgehog signaling and the phylogenic conservation of hedgehog function in vertebrates. For example, whether hedgehog signaling in vertebrates requires smoothened is unclear, and the role of hedgehog activity in zebrafish is controversial. We show that(More)
The functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) technique can be robustly used to map functional activation of the visual pathway including the primary visual cortex (V1), the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), and other nuclei of humans during visual perception stimulation. One of the major controversies in visual neuroscience is whether lower-order visual areas(More)