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FADD (also known as Mort-1) is a signal transducer downstream of cell death receptor CD95 (also called Fas). CD95, tumor necrosis factor receptor type 1 (TNFR-1), and death receptor 3 (DR3) did not induce apoptosis in FADD-deficient embryonic fibroblasts, whereas DR4, oncogenes E1A and c-myc, and chemotherapeutic agent adriamycin did. Mice with a deletion(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns, and members of the pro-inflammatory interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) family, share homologies in their cytoplasmic domains called Toll/IL-1R/plant R gene homology (TIR) domains. Intracellular signalling mechanisms mediated by TIRs are similar, with MyD88 (refs 5-8) and TRAF6(More)
Mounting an immune response to a viral pathogen involves the initial recognition of viral antigens through Toll-like receptor-dependent and -independent pathways and the subsequent triggering of signal transduction cascades. Among the many cellular kinases stimulated in response to virus infection, the noncanonical IKK-related kinases TBK1 and IKKepsilon(More)
Complement-derived anaphylatoxins regulate immune and inflammatory responses through G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-mediated signalling. C5L2 (also known as GPR77) is a relatively new GPCR thought to be a non-signalling receptor binding to C5a, on the basis of sequence information and experimental evidence. Here we show, using gene targeting, that C5L2(More)
As components of the apoptosome, a caspase-activating complex, cytochrome c (Cyt c) and Apaf-1 are thought to play critical roles during apoptosis. Due to the obligate function of Cyt c in electron transport, its requirement for apoptosis in animals has been difficult to establish. We generated "knockin" mice expressing a mutant Cyt c (KA allele), which(More)
TANK-binding kinase-1 (TBK1) and the inducible IkappaB kinase (IKK-i) have been shown recently to activate interferon (IFN) regulatory factor-3 (IRF3), the primary transcription factor regulating induction of type I IFNs. Here, we have compared the role and specificity of TBK1 in the type I IFN response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), polyI:C, and viral(More)
Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinases (IRAKs) are key components in the signal transduction pathways utilized by interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R), interleukin-18 receptor (IL-18R), and Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Out of four members in the mammalian IRAK family, IRAK-4 is considered to be the "master IRAK", the only family member indispensable for(More)
The T cell costimulatory molecule CD28 is important for T cell survival, yet both the signaling pathways downstream of CD28 and the apoptotic pathways they antagonize remain poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that CD4(+) T cells from CD28-deficient mice show increased susceptibility to Fas-mediated apoptosis via a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase(More)
Osteoclasts are derived from myeloid lineage cells, and their differentiation is supported by various osteotropic factors, including the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family member TNF-related activation-induced cytokine (TRANCE). Genetic deletion of TRANCE or its receptor, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB (RANK), results in severely osteopetrotic(More)