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In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy(More)
Decapitated Hydra regenerate their heads via morphallaxis, i.e., without significant contributions made by cell proliferation or interstitial stem cells. Indeed, Hydra depleted of interstitial stem cells regenerate robustly, and Wnt3 from epithelial cells triggers head regeneration. However, we find a different mechanism controlling regeneration after(More)
The Hydra polyp provides a powerful model system to investigate the regulation of cell survival and cell death in homeostasis and regeneration as Hydra survive weeks without feeding and regenerates any missing part after bisection. Induction of autophagy during starvation is the main surviving strategy in Hydra as autophagic vacuoles form in most(More)
Hydra is a freshwater hydrozoan polyp that constantly renews its two tissue layers thanks to three distinct stem cell populations that cannot replace each other, epithelial ectodermal, epithelial endodermal, and multipotent interstitial. These adult stem cells, located in the central body column, exhibit different cycling paces, slow for the epithelial,(More)
Epithelial sheets, a synapomorphy of all metazoans but porifers, are present as 2 layers in cnidarians, ectoderm and endoderm, joined at their basal side by an extra-cellular matrix named mesoglea. In the Hydra polyp, epithelial cells of the body column are unipotent stem cells that continuously self-renew and concomitantly express their epitheliomuscular(More)
Although significant progresses were made in the field of molecular biology of malignant cerebral gliomas, the prognostic of these tumors continues to be reserved. One of the therapeutic failure reasons is the incomplete knowledge regarding the origin of these tumors and cells features, which in fact represent an obstacle in developing a cell and molecular(More)
In hydra, the regulation of the balance between cell death and cell survival is essential to maintain homeostasis across the animal and promote animal survival during starvation. Moreover, this balance also appears to play a key role during regeneration of the apical head region. The recent finding that autophagy is a crucial component of this balance(More)
Previously performed light microscopy studies have demonstrated Hep2 tumoral cells to be sensitive to concentrations of LiCl 1 mM and 2 mM. At those concentrations, LiCl induces morphological alterations consisting in cell hypertrophy, formations of cells with several nuclei similar to syncytium, cytoplasmic projections. This study focuses on the action of(More)
In the freshwater cnidarian polyp Hydra, cell death takes place in multiple contexts. Indeed apoptosis occurs during oogenesis and spermatogenesis, during starvation, and in early head regenerating tips, promoting local compensatory proliferation at the boundary between heterografts. Apoptosis can also be induced upon exposure to pro-apoptotic agents(More)
The impact of injury-induced immune responses on animal regenerative processes is highly variable, positive or negative depending on the context. This likely reflects the complexity of the innate immune system that behaves as a sentinel in the transition from injury to regeneration. Early-branching invertebrates with high regenerative potential as Hydra(More)