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Cisplatin is a widely used and highly effective cancer chemotherapeutic agent. One of the limiting side effects of cisplatin use is nephrotoxicity. Research over the past 10 years has uncovered many of the cellular mechanisms which underlie cisplatin-induced renal cell death. It has also become apparent that inflammation provoked by injury to renal(More)
Cisplatin is an important chemotherapeutic agent but can cause acute renal injury. Part of this acute renal injury is mediated through tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). The pathway through which cisplatin mediates the production of TNF-alpha and injury is not known. Cisplatin activates p38 MAPK and induces apoptosis in cancer cells. p38 MAPK(More)
The molecular mechanisms of acute kidney injury (AKI) remain unclear. Toll-like receptors (TLRs), widely expressed on leukocytes and kidney epithelial cells, regulate innate and adaptive immune responses. The present study examined the role of TLR signaling in cisplatin-induced AKI. Cisplatin-treated wild-type mice had significantly more renal dysfunction,(More)
The mechanisms responsible for the loss of cell potassium during renal ischemia are poorly understood. The present studies examined the hypothesis that potassium channels are activated as an early response to hypoxia and contribute to potassium loss independent from an inhibition of active K+ uptake. Potassium flux in suspensions of freshly isolated rat(More)
Extracellular ATP affects a wide variety of cells via purinergic membrane receptors. One class of purinergic receptors, P2X, consists of ATP-gated, calcium-permeable, cation-selective channels. We performed whole cell patch-clamp studies, intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) measurements, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)(More)
BACKGROUND The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) has been increasing over time and is associated with a high risk of short-term death. Previous studies on hospital-acquired AKI have important methodological limitations, especially their retrospective study designs and limited ability to control for potential confounding factors. METHODS The(More)
Ion channels in endosomal membranes from rabbit kidney cortex were studied after reconstitution into planar lipid bilayers. The most frequently observed ion channel was anion selective (PCl/PK = 13) and had a single-channel conductance of 116 pS when the cis and trans solutions contained 410 and 150 mM KCl, respectively, and a conductance of 90 pS in(More)
The experiments reported herein compared Cl- channels fused into bilayers from rabbit outer medullary vesicles with Cl- channels in excised patches of basolateral membranes from cultured mouse medullary thick ascending limb (MTAL) cells and evaluated whether the latter were plausible candidates for the Cl- channels mediating net NaCl absorption in(More)
Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a multifunctional protein with antiangiogenic, antioxidative, and anti-inflammatory properties. PEDF is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy, but its direct role in the kidneys remains unclear. We hypothesize that a PEDF fragment (P78-PEDF) confers kidney protection in diabetic nephropathy (DN).(More)
Monocyte/macrophage recruitment correlates strongly with the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is produced by monocytes/macrophages but the direct role of TNF-α and/or macrophage-derived TNF-α in the progression of diabetic nephropathy remains unclear. Here we tested whether inhibition of TNF-α confers kidney protection in(More)