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Deep avian evolutionary relationships have been difficult to resolve as a result of a putative explosive radiation. Our study examined approximately 32 kilobases of aligned nuclear DNA sequences from 19 independent loci for 169 species, representing all major extant groups, and recovered a robust phylogeny from a genome-wide signal supported by multiple(More)
An accurately resolved gene tree may not be congruent with the species tree because of lineage sorting of ancestral polymorphisms. DNA sequences from the mitochondrially encoded genes (mtDNA) are attractive sources of characters for estimating the phylogenies of recently evolved taxa because mtDNA evolves rapidly, but its utility is limited because the(More)
Radio Doppler data from four encounters of the Galileo spacecraft with the jovian moon Europa have been used to refine models of Europa's interior. Europa is most likely differentiated into a metallic core surrounded by a rock mantle and a water ice-liquid outer shell, but the data cannot eliminate the possibility of a uniform mixture of dense silicate and(More)
Estimating phylogenies from DNA sequence data has become the major methodology of molecular phylogenetics. To date, molecular phylogenetics of the vertebrates has been very dependent on mtDNA, but studies involving mtDNA are limited because the several genes comprising the mt-genome are inherited as a single linkage group. The only apparent solution to this(More)
Doppler data generated with the Galileo spacecraft's radio carrier wave during two Europa encounters on 19 December 1996 (E4) and 20 February 1997 (E6) were used to measure Europa's external gravitational field. The measurements indicate that Europa has a predominantly water ice-liquid outer shell about 100 to 200 kilometers thick and a deep interior with a(More)
Picoides is the largest genus of woodpeckers and member species are found on most major land masses. Current systematic arrangement of this group, based on morphological, behavioral, and plumage characters, suggests that New World species evolved from a single invasion by a Eurasian common ancestor and that all New World species form a monophyletic group.(More)
The ice-rich surface of the jovian satellite Europa is sparsely cratered, suggesting that this moon might be geologically active today. Moreover, models of the satellite's interior indicate that tidal interactions with Jupiter might produce enough heat to maintain a subsurface liquid water layer. But the mechanisms of interior heat loss and resurfacing are(More)
Mitochondrial 12S rRNA sequences were used to construct a phylogeny for the African treefrog family, Hyperoliidae. The sequences were aligned using the well-established mt 12S rRNA secondary structure as a map to designate stem and loop positions. Conservation of secondary structure permits a more accurate basis for assessing homologies than does primary(More)