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  • W M Baum
  • 1974
DATA ON CHOICE GENERALLY CONFORM CLOSELY TO AN EQUATION OF THE FORM: log(B(1)/B(2))=a log(r(1)/r(2)+log k, where B(1) and B(2) are the frequencies of responding at Alternatives 1 and 2, r(1) and r(2) are the obtained reinforcement from Alternatives 1 and 2, and a and k are empirical constants. When a and k equal one, this equation is equivalent to the(More)
  • W M Baum
  • 1979
Almost all of 103 sets of data from 23 different studies of choice conformed closely to the equation: log (B(1)/B(2)) = a log (r(1)/r(2)) + log b, where B(1) and B(2) are either numbers of responses or times spent at Alternatives 1 and 2, r(1) and r(2) are the rates of reinforcement obtained from Alternatives 1 and 2, and a and b are empirical constants.(More)
  • W Baum, J Kraft
  • 1998
If a group of foragers distributes among resource patches according to the ideal free distribution, the relative number of foragers in each patch should match the relative amount of resource obtained there, unless deviations arise from factors such as incomplete information or interforager interference. In analogy to individual choice, such effects may(More)
Six pigeons were trained in sessions composed of seven components, each arranged with a different concurrent-schedule reinforcer ratio. These components occurred in an irregular order with equal frequency, separated by 10-s blackouts. No signals differentiated the different reinforcer ratios. Conditions lasted 50 sessions, and data were collected from the(More)
  • W M Baum
  • 1973
It is commonly understood that the interactions between an organism and its environment constitute a feedback system. This implies that instrumental behavior should be viewed as a continuous exchange between the organism and the environment. It follows that orderly relations between behavior and environment should emerge at the level of aggregate flow in(More)
The ideal free distribution theory (Fretwell & Lucas, 1970) predicts that the ratio of foragers at two patches will equal the ratio of food resources obtained at the two patches. The theory assumes that foragers have "perfect knowledge" of patch profitability and that patch choice maximizes fitness. How foragers assess patch profitability has been debated(More)
When pigeons' standing on one or the other side of a chamber was reinforced on two concurrent variable-interval schedules, the ratio of time spent on the left to time spent on the right was directly proportional to the ratio of reinforcements produced by standing on the left to reinforcements produced by standing on the right. The constant of(More)
  • W M Baum
  • 1993
TWO DIFFERENCES BETWEEN RATIO AND INTERVAL PERFORMANCE ARE WELL KNOWN: (a) Higher rates occur on ratio schedules, and (b) ratio schedules are unable to maintain responding at low rates of reinforcement (ratio "strain"). A third phenomenon, a downturn in response rate at the highest rates of reinforcement, is well documented for ratio schedules and is(More)
13 Cultural evolution is driven in part by the strategies individuals employ to acquire behavior from 14 others. These strategies themselves are partly products of natural selection, making the study of so-15 cial learning an inherently Darwinian project. Formal models of the evolution of social learning sug-16 gest that reliance on social learning should(More)
Molar and molecular views of behavior imply different approaches to data analysis. The molecular view privileges moment-to-moment analyses, whereas the molar view supports analysis of more and less extended activities. In concurrent performance, the molar view supports study of both extended patterns of choice and more local patterns of visiting the choice(More)