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N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors constitute a major subtype of glutamate receptors at extrasynaptic sites that link multiple intracellular catabolic processes responsible for irreversible neuronal death. Here, we report that cerebral ischemia recruits death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1) into the NMDA receptor NR2B protein complex in the cortex of(More)
The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade transduces multiple extracellular signals from cell surface to nucleus and is employed in cellular responses to cellular stresses and apoptotic regulation. The involvement of the p38 MAPK cascade in opioid- and opioid receptor-like receptor-1 (ORL1) receptor-mediated signal transduction was examined in(More)
Calcineurin is a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase expressed at high levels in brain. Many electrophysiological and pharmacological findings have shown that calcineurin plays an important role in brain function. FK506 is always used as a specific calcineurin inhibitor in these researches. But these reports did not quantify the calcineurin(More)
In the present study, we used a focal cerebral ischemia and reperfusion rat model to investigate the protective effects of Xiao-Xu-Ming decoction (XXMD) on neurovascular unit and to examine the role of PI3K (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase)/Akt pathway in this protection. The cerebral ischemia was induced by 90 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion.(More)
The purpose of this study was to explore the positive effects of Jian-Pi-Zhi-Dong Decoction (JPZDD) on Tourette syndrome (TS) by investigating the expression of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and its type A receptor (GABAAR) in the striatum of a TS mice model. The model was induced by 3,3'-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN) treatment; then mice were divided into 4(More)
Pseudoginsenoside-F11 (PF11), an ocotillol type saponin isolated from Panax quinquefolium L., has been shown to antagonize the behavioral actions of morphine. Biochemical experiments revealed that PF11 could inhibit diprenorphine (DIP) binding with an IC50 of approximately 6.1 microM and reduced the binding potency of morphine in Chinese hamster ovary(More)
Arsenic trioxide (As2O3), a kind of pentavalent arsenic, has recently been linked to disrupted immune function. Heat shock proteins (Hsps), a group of highly conserved proteins, are rapidly synthesised when living organisms are exposed to various stress conditions. The objective of this study is to determine the effects of As2O3 on the expression level of(More)
Exposure of people and animals to arsenic (As) is a global public health concern because As is widely distributed and associated with numerous adverse effects. As is a poisonous metalloid and arsenic trioxide (As2O3) is a form of As. Thus far, there have been very few reports on the inflammatory factor alterations of the gastrointestinal tract in birds(More)
The potential modulation of opioid receptor signaling by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) has been investigated in NG108-15 cells. Both CaMKII specific inhibitors used, KN62 and KN93, time- and dose-dependently blocked inhibition of cAMP accumulation by [D-Pen2, D-Pen5]enkephalin (DPDPE), with an IC50 of about 1.2 microM and 0.8(More)