W.A McEwan

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Antibodies can be carried into the cell during pathogen infection where they are detected by the ubiquitously expressed cytosolic antibody receptor TRIM21. Here we show that TRIM21 recognition of intracellular antibodies activates immune signaling. TRIM21 catalyses K63ubiquitin chain formation, stimulating transcription factor pathways NF-κB, AP-1 and IRF3,(More)
Replication of ice crystals with vapor of methyl 2-cyanoacrylate has produced evidence of whiskers on them; an additional mechanism for the necessary multiplication of ice crystals in the atmosphere is suggested. This replication technique also confirms crystal clustering in the atmosphere and appears to confirm the distribution of electrical charge on ice(More)
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