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The laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus) is an indispensable tool in experimental medicine and drug development, having made inestimable contributions to human health. We report here the genome sequence of the Brown Norway (BN) rat strain. The sequence represents a high-quality 'draft' covering over 90% of the genome. The BN rat sequence is the third complete(More)
BACKGROUND We compared two methods of rooting a phylogenetic tree: the stationary and the nonstationary substitution processes. These methods do not require an outgroup. METHODS Given a multiple alignment and an unrooted tree, the maximum likelihood estimates of branch lengths and substitution parameters for each associated rooted tree are found; rooted(More)
The amount of noncoding genomic DNA sequence that aligns between human and mouse varies substantially in different regions of their genomes, and the amount of repetitive DNA also varies. In this report, we show that divergence in noncoding nonrepetitive DNA is strongly correlated with the amount of repetitive DNA in a region. We investigated aligned DNA in(More)
We describe a whole-genome comparative analysis of the human, mouse, and rat genomes to describe the average substitution patterns of four genomic regions: ancient repeats, rodent-specific DNA, exons, and conserved (coding and noncoding) regions, and to identify rodent evolutionary hotspots. In all types of regions, except the rodent-specific DNA, the rat(More)
The genetic distance between biological sequences is a fundamental quantity in molecular evolution. It pertains to questions of rates of evolution, existence of a molecular clock, and phylogenetic inference. Under the class of continuous-time substitution models, the distance is commonly defined as the expected number of substitutions at any site in the(More)
Major histocompatibility complex class I molecules present peptides of 8-10 residues to CD8+ T cells. We used 19 predicted proteomes to determine the influence of CD8+ T cell immune surveillance on protein evolution in humans and microbial pathogens by predicting immunopeptidomes, i.e., sets of class I binding peptides present in proteomes. We find that(More)
Analysis of natural selection is key to understanding many core biological processes, including the emergence of competition, cooperation, and complexity, and has important applications in the targeted development of vaccines. Selection is hard to observe directly but can be inferred from molecular sequence variation. For protein-coding nucleotide(More)
BACKGROUND Neighboring nucleotides exert a striking influence on mutation, with the hypermutability of CpG dinucleotides in many genomes being an exemplar. Among the approaches employed to measure the relative importance of sequence neighbors on molecular evolution have been continuous-time Markov process models for substitutions that treat sequences as a(More)
We studied the substitution patterns in 7661 well-conserved human-mouse alignments corresponding to the intergenic regions of human chromosome 22. Alignments with a high average GC content tend to have a higher human GC content than mouse GC content, indicating a lack of stationarity. Segmenting the alignments into four groups of GC content and fitting the(More)
BACKGROUND Quantitative trait loci analysis assumes that the trait is normally distributed. In reality, this is often not observed and one strategy is to transform the trait. However, it is not clear how much normality is required and which transformation works best in association studies. RESULTS We performed simulations on four types of common(More)