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We present video-rate (28 frames per second) far-field optical imaging with a focal spot size of 62 nanometers in living cells. Fluorescently labeled synaptic vesicles inside the axons of cultured neurons were recorded with stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy in a 2.5-micrometer by 1.8-micrometer field of view. By reducing the cross-sectional(More)
Synaptic vesicles need to be mobile to reach their release sites during synaptic activity. We investigated vesicle mobility throughout the synaptic vesicle cycle using both conventional and subdiffraction-resolution stimulated emission depletion fluorescence microscopy. Vesicle tracking revealed that recently endocytosed synaptic vesicles are highly mobile(More)
We undertake a comprehensive study of the inverse square root dependence of spatial resolution on the saturation factor in stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy and generalize it to account for various focal depletion patterns. We used an experimental platform featuring a high quality depletion pattern which results in operation close to the(More)
Synaptic transmission is mediated by neurotransmitters that are stored in synaptic vesicles and released by exocytosis upon activation. The vesicle membrane is then retrieved by endocytosis, and synaptic vesicles are regenerated and re-filled with neurotransmitter. Although many aspects of vesicle recycling are understood, the fate of the vesicles after(More)
Neurotransmitter release is achieved through the fusion of synaptic vesicles with the neuronal plasma membrane (exocytosis). Vesicles are then retrieved from the plasma membrane (endocytosis). It was hypothesized more than 3 decades ago that endosomes participate in vesicle recycling, constituting a slow endocytosis pathway required especially after(More)
RATIONALE Transverse tubules (TTs) couple electric surface signals to remote intracellular Ca(2+) release units (CRUs). Diffraction-limited imaging studies have proposed loss of TT components as disease mechanism in heart failure (HF). OBJECTIVES Objectives were to develop quantitative super-resolution strategies for live-cell imaging of TT membranes in(More)
BACKGROUND Recent advances in high-speed scanning technology have enabled a new generation of optical coherence tomographic (OCT) systems to perform imaging at video rate. Here, a handheld OCT probe capable of imaging the anterior segment of the eye at high frame rates is demonstrated for the first time. OBJECTIVE To demonstrate real-time OCT imaging of(More)
PURPOSE To describe high-speed (4000 axial scans/s) optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings in a patient with narrow angles. DESIGN Interventional case report. METHODS A 56-year-old woman was found to have occludable narrow angles on OCT screening. This was confirmed by gonioscopy. Bilateral iridotomy was performed. Imaging of the angles was(More)
We demonstrate two-color fluorescence microscopy with nanoscale spatial resolution by applying stimulated emission depletion on fluorophores differing in their absorption and emission spectra. Green- and red-emitting fluorophores are selectively excited and quenched using dedicated beam pairs. The stimulated emission depletion beams deliver a lateral(More)
Utilizing single fluorescent molecules as probes, we prove the ability of a far-field microscope to attain spatial resolution down to 16 nm in the focal plane, corresponding to about 1/50 of the employed wavelength. The optical bandwidth expansion by nearly an order of magnitude is realized by a saturated depletion through stimulated emission of the(More)