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We present video-rate (28 frames per second) far-field optical imaging with a focal spot size of 62 nanometers in living cells. Fluorescently labeled synaptic vesicles inside the axons of cultured neurons were recorded with stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy in a 2.5-micrometer by 1.8-micrometer field of view. By reducing the cross-sectional(More)
Synaptic vesicles need to be mobile to reach their release sites during synaptic activity. We investigated vesicle mobility throughout the synaptic vesicle cycle using both conventional and subdiffraction-resolution stimulated emission depletion fluorescence microscopy. Vesicle tracking revealed that recently endocytosed synaptic vesicles are highly mobile(More)
Synaptic transmission is mediated by neurotransmitters that are stored in synaptic vesicles and released by exocytosis upon activation. The vesicle membrane is then retrieved by endocytosis, and synaptic vesicles are regenerated and re-filled with neurotransmitter. Although many aspects of vesicle recycling are understood, the fate of the vesicles after(More)
Neurotransmitter release is achieved through the fusion of synaptic vesicles with the neuronal plasma membrane (exocytosis). Vesicles are then retrieved from the plasma membrane (endocytosis). It was hypothesized more than 3 decades ago that endosomes participate in vesicle recycling, constituting a slow endocytosis pathway required especially after(More)
We demonstrate two-color fluorescence microscopy with nanoscale spatial resolution by applying stimulated emission depletion on fluorophores differing in their absorption and emission spectra. Green- and red-emitting fluorophores are selectively excited and quenched using dedicated beam pairs. The stimulated emission depletion beams deliver a lateral(More)
Applying pulsed excitation together with time-gated detection improves the fluorescence on-off contrast in continuous-wave stimulated emission depletion (CW-STED) microscopy, thus revealing finer details in fixed and living cells using moderate light intensities. This method also enables super-resolution fluorescence correlation spectroscopy with CW-STED(More)
Utilizing single fluorescent molecules as probes, we prove the ability of a far-field microscope to attain spatial resolution down to 16 nm in the focal plane, corresponding to about 1/50 of the employed wavelength. The optical bandwidth expansion by nearly an order of magnitude is realized by a saturated depletion through stimulated emission of the(More)
We show far-field fluorescence nanoscopy of different structural elements labeled with an organic dye within living mammalian cells. The diffraction barrier limiting far-field light microscopy is outperformed by using stimulated emission depletion. We used the tagging protein hAGT (SNAP-tag), which covalently binds benzylguanine-substituted organic dyes,(More)
Up to now, all demonstrations of reversible saturable optical fluorescence transitions (RESOLFT) superresolution microscopy of living cells have relied on the use of reversibly switchable fluorescent proteins (RSFP) emitting in the green spectral range. Here we show RESOLFT imaging with rsCherryRev1.4, a new red-emitting RSFP enabling a spatial resolution(More)
We report on fast beam-scanning stimulated-emission-depletion (STED) microscopy in the visible range using for resolution enhancement compact, low cost and turn-key continuous wave (CW) fiber lasers emitting at 592 nm. Spatial resolutions of 35 to 65 nm in the focal plane are shown for various samples including fluorescent nanoparticles, immuno-stained(More)