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Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) and salps (mainly Salpa thompsoni) are major grazers in the Southern Ocean, and krill support commercial fisheries. Their density distributions have been described in the period 1926-51, while recent localized studies suggest short-term changes. To examine spatial and temporal changes over larger scales, we have combined(More)
Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, has been studied since the early 1920s including distribution, life cycle and behavioural biology. Quantitative aspects of distribution, biomass and demography were becoming more important since the late 1970s when a rapidly developing krill fishery started to exploit this unique resource. Since then, opinions have(More)
BACKGROUND The question of how many marine species exist is important because it provides a metric for how much we do and do not know about life in the oceans. We have compiled the first register of the marine species of the world and used this baseline to estimate how many more species, partitioned among all major eukaryotic groups, may be discovered. (More)
Signal recognition particle (SRP) is a ribonucleoprotein consisting of six distinct polypeptides and one molecule of small cytoplasmic 7SL RNA. It was previously shown to promote the co-translational translocation of secretory proteins across the endoplasmic reticulum by (a) arresting the elongation of the presecretory nascent chain at a specific point, and(More)
Signal recognition particle (SRP), a small ribonucleoprotein required for targeting secretory proteins to the ER, has three known functions: signal recognition, elongation arrest, and translocation promotion. Because SRP is inactivated by the sulfhydryl alkylating reagent N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), we have attempted to establish structure-function(More)
The present paper describes the composition, abundance, biomass and diversity of the meso- and macrozooplankton in the epipelagic zone of the open water and under the ice of the northern Weddell Sea. Samples were collected in October/November 1988 with a multiple RMT1+8 net during the European Polarstern Study (EPOS). Multivariate analysis resulted in two(More)
Biochemical mutagenesis-alteration or removal of specific domains within a biological structure-followed by functional analysis, gives insight into structure-function relationships. We describe the analysis of the signal recognition particle, a ribonucleoprotein known to be required for the entry of most proteins into the secretory pathway, as an example of(More)
We have used the nuclease alpha-sarcin to map the binding sites of the 19-kDa and the 68/72-kDa proteins of signal recognition particle (SRP) on SRP RNA. We found that the regions of protection to nuclease afforded by the two proteins were distinct. p19 protected primarily the two tips in the RNA secondary structure. p68/72 protected a large region(More)
A small number of maternal effect genes determine anterior-posterior pattern in the Drosophila embryo. Embryos from females mutant for the maternal gene bicoid lack head and thorax. bcd mRNA becomes localized to the anterior tip of the egg during oogenesis and is the source for the morphogen gradient of bcd protein. Here we show that in vitro transcribed(More)
We have identified a new member of the posterior group of genes, which we call pipsqueak. We show that pipsqueak acts after the establishment of the oskar posterior anchor but before the localization of vasa protein during oogenesis. Characterization of multiple alleles at the pipsqueak locus shows that pipsqueak, like vasa, is required for early stages of(More)