Volker Schweikhard

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We create rapidly rotating Bose-Einstein condensates in the lowest Landau level by spinning up the condensates to rotation rates Omega > 99% of the centrifugal limit for a harmonically trapped gas, while reducing the number of atoms. As a consequence, the chemical potential drops below the cyclotron energy 2 variant Planck's over 2pi Omega. While in this(More)
Recent evidence suggests that transcript elongation by RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) is regulated by mechanical cues affecting the entry into, and exit from, transcriptionally inactive states, including pausing and arrest. We present a single-molecule optical-trapping study of the interactions of RNAPII with transcription elongation factors TFIIS and TFIIF,(More)
We observe interlaced square vortex lattices in rotating dilute-gas spinor Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC). After preparing a hexagonal vortex lattice in a one-component BEC in an internal atomic state |1, we coherently transfer a fraction of the superfluid to a different state |2. The subsequent evolution of this pseudo-spin-1/2 superfluid towards a state(More)
Elongation, the transcriptional phase in which RNA polymerase (RNAP) moves processively along a DNA template, occurs via a fundamental enzymatic mechanism that is thought to be universally conserved among multi-subunit polymerases in all kingdoms of life. Beyond this basic mechanism, a multitude of processes are integrated into transcript elongation, among(More)
We report the observation of vortex pinning in rotating gaseous Bose-Einstein condensates. Vortices are pinned to columnar pinning sites created by a corotating optical lattice superimposed on the rotating Bose-Einstein condensates. We study the effects of two types of optical lattice: triangular and square. In both geometries we see an orientation locking(More)
We directly image Tkachenko waves in a vortex lattice in a dilute-gas Bose-Einstein condensate. The low (sub-Hz) resonant frequencies are a consequence of the small but nonvanishing elastic shear modulus of the vortex-filled superfluid. The frequencies are measured for rotation rates as high as 98% of the centrifugal limit for the harmonically confined gas.(More)
We study the formation of large vortex aggregates in a rapidly rotating dilute-gas Bose-Einstein condensate. When we remove atoms from the rotating condensate with a tightly focused, resonant laser, the density can be locally suppressed, while fast circulation of a ring-shaped superflow around the area of suppressed density is maintained. Thus a giant(More)
Electron emission from individual Au nanorods deposited on indium-tin-oxide (ITO) following excitation with femtosecond laser pulses near the rod longitudinal plasmon resonance is studied via scanning photoionization microscopy. The measured electron signal is observed to strongly depend on the excitation laser polarization and wavelength. Correlated(More)
Repulsive laser potential pulses applied to vortex lattices of rapidly rotating Bose-Einstein condensates create propagating density waves which we have observed experimentally and modeled computationally to high accuracy. We have observed a rich variety of dynamical phenomena ranging from interference effects and shock-wave formation to anisotropic sound(More)
We observe the proliferation of vortices in the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless regime on a two-dimensional array of Josephson-coupled Bose-Einstein condensates. As long as the Josephson (tunneling) energy J exceeds the thermal energy T, the array is vortex free. With decreasing J/T, vortices appear in the system in ever greater numbers. We confirm thermal(More)