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The genome of the human immunodeficiency virus is highly prone to recombination, although it is not obvious whether recombinants arise infrequently or whether they are constantly being spawned but escape identification because of the massive and rapid turnover of virus particles. Here we use fluorescence in situ hybridization to estimate the number of(More)
BACKGROUND MicroRNA expression is altered in cancer cells, and microRNAs could serve as diagnostic/prognostic biomarker for cancer patients. Our study was designed to analyze circulating serum microRNAs in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We first explored microrna expression profiles in tissue and serum using(More)
BACKGROUND Alterations of chromosome 8 and hypomethylation of LINE-1 retrotransposons are common alterations in advanced prostate carcinoma. In a former study including many metastatic cases, they strongly correlated with each other. To elucidate a possible interaction between the two alterations, we investigated their relationship in less advanced prostate(More)
Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) and mammalian-enabled protein (MENA) share similar cellular localisation and functions (signal transduction pathways, regulation of actin cytoskeleton dynamics). Functional substitution and compensation among Ena/VASP proteins have been proposed as the reason for the absence of major morphological and functional(More)
Current Geographic Information Systems (GIS) offer powerful cartographic and visualization techniques, but they do not contain the knowledge necessary to use them effectively. This gap can be closed by GIS user interfaces which help users create effective visualizations of their data. This paper introduces an effectiveness evaluation scheme supporting such(More)
in granulocytes is ϳ2.4-fold greater than that in mononuclear cells (Table 1). The clinical significance of these results will also likely be in the realm of heterozy-gosity testing. In addition, some individuals with ␣-idu-ronidase deficiency have undergone bone marrow or cord blood transplantation therapy (22, 27), and here, too, biochemical monitoring of(More)
Collecting duct carcinoma (CDC) is a rare renal neoplasm that is associated with poor prognosis due to its highly aggressive course and limited response to immuno- or chemotherapy. Histologically, CDC is defined as a subtype of renal cell carcinomas, but in some cases, it is difficult to differentiate from urothelial carcinomas (UC). Therefore the aim of(More)