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Exposure to environmental cues is considered a major cause of relapse in detoxified addicts. Recent findings showed an involvement of glutamate in cue-induced relapse and suggest that subtype 5 of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR5) is involved in conditioned drug-reward. The present study applied the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm to(More)
Long-lasting drug-associated memories can contribute to relapse; therefore these memories must be inactivated to enable sustainable success in addiction therapy. As drug associations are usually acquired over several conditioning events, we assume that an effective treatment should be repeatedly applied to achieve persistent effects. In this study, we(More)
ArachnoServer (www.arachnoserver.org) is a manually curated database providing information on the sequence, structure and biological activity of protein toxins from spider venoms. These proteins are of interest to a wide range of biologists due to their diverse applications in medicine, neuroscience, pharmacology, drug discovery and agriculture.(More)
Recent studies have revealed the effectiveness of 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine (MPEP), a highly selective antagonist of metabotropic glutamate receptors subtype 5 (mGluR5), in conditioned drug reward. In a previous study we showed that MPEP blocks expression of context-conditioned morphine- but not cocaine reward in the rat. The present study now(More)
Over 10,000 arthropod species are currently considered to be pest organisms. They are estimated to contribute to the destruction of ~14% of the world's annual crop production and transmit many pathogens. Presently, arthropod pests of agricultural and health significance are controlled predominantly through the use of chemical insecticides. Unfortunately,(More)
Voltage-gated sodium (Na(V)) channels play a central role in the propagation of action potentials in excitable cells in both humans and insects. Many venomous animals have therefore evolved toxins that modulate the activity of Na(V) channels in order to subdue their prey and deter predators. Spider venoms in particular are rich in Na(V) channel modulators,(More)
Arthropod venoms consist primarily of peptide toxins that are injected into their prey with devastating consequences. Venom proteins are thought to be recruited from endogenous body proteins and mutated to yield neofunctionalized toxins with remarkable affinity for specific subtypes of ion channels and receptors. However, the evolutionary history of venom(More)
Spiders are the most successful venomous animals and the most abundant terrestrial predators. Their remarkable success is due in large part to their ingenious exploitation of silk and the evolution of pharmacologically complex venoms that ensure rapid subjugation of prey. Most spider venoms are dominated by disulfide-rich peptides that typically have high(More)
BACKGROUND Venomous animals incapacitate their prey using complex venoms that can contain hundreds of unique protein toxins. The realisation that many of these toxins may have pharmaceutical and insecticidal potential due to their remarkable potency and selectivity against target receptors has led to an explosion in the number of new toxins being discovered(More)
Relapse prevention in clean addicts is a great challenge for addiction-therapy. As strong cravings often precede relapse, anti-craving drugs seem to be a promising way for addicts to stay clean. Naloxone and acamprosate are two candidates for anti-craving drugs that are already used for relapse prevention in alcoholic patients. However, it has to be figured(More)