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| In turbo–detection the " turbo principle " is applied to joint equalization and decoding. The performance of a turbo scheme strongly depends on the quality of the soft values passed between the soft–in/soft– out decoders. In this paper we describe the differences between optimum and suboptimum soft–in/soft–out algorithms for equalization and decoding and(More)
—We apply two reduced-computation variants of the BCJR algorithm to the decoding of serial and parallel concate-nated convolutional codes. One computes its recursions at only M states per trellis stage; one computes only at states with values above a threshold. The threshold scheme is much more efficient, and it greatly reduces the computation of the BCJR(More)
In atomic force microscope studies of molecular thin films, a defined jump of the tip through the film is often observed once a certain threshold force has been exceeded. Here, we present a theory to describe this film rupture and to relate microscopic parameters to measurable quantities. We assume that the tip has to overcome an activation energy before(More)
Researchers often calculate ratios of measured quantities. Specifying confidence limits for ratios is difficult and the appropriate methods are often unknown. Appropriate methods are described (Fieller, Taylor, special boot-strap methods). For the Fieller method a simple geometrical interpretation is given. Monte Carlo simulations show when these methods(More)
In atomic force microscope studies of thin films often a defined jump of the tip through the film is observed once a certain threshold force has been exceeded. In particular, on lipid bilayers this is regularly observed. In a previous paper [H.-J. Butt and V. Franz, Phys. Rev. E 66, 031601 (2002)] we presented two complementary models to describe film(More)
Neuropsychological studies prompted the hypothesis that visual information is processed in two anatomical and functional distinct streams in the primate brain. The perception versus action hypothesis states that the dorsal stream transforms visual information for the guidance of motor actions while the ventral stream uses visual information for object(More)
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