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The release of microparticles from eukaryotic cells is a well-recognized phenomenon. We demonstrate here that the chemokine receptor CCR5, the principal co-receptor for macrophage-tropic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1, can be released through microparticles from the surface of CCR5+ Chinese hamster ovary cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells.(More)
The tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib (Gleevec, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation; Basel, Switzerland) is a powerful drug for treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and other malignancies. It selectively targets various tyrosine kinases, thereby leading to growth arrest of respective cancer cells. Given its wide application, it is of high(More)
The human genome contains a family of endogenous retroviruses, HERV-K, with sequence homology to the B-type mouse mammary tumor virus. We have now identified a single HERV-K LTR within the C-type-related human retroviral element S71. The HERV-K LTR is located in the antisense direction between the S71 gag and the pol gene, replacing the 5' half of S71 pol.(More)
The cartilagenous tissue of mandibular condyles of newborn mice contains progenitor cells as well as young and mature chondrogenic cells. During in vitro cultivation of the tissue, progenitor cells undergo osteogenic differentiation and form new bone (Silbermann, M., D. Lewinson, H. Gonen, M. A. Lizarbe, and K. von der Mark. 1983. Anat. Rec. 206:373-383).(More)
The overall impact of prion disease on gene expression is not well characterized. We have carried out a large-scale expression analysis of specific cell types commonly employed in studies of prion disease. Neuroblastoma cells (N2a) and hypothalamic neuronal cells (GT1) can be persistently infected with mouse-adapted scrapie prions, the latter demonstrating(More)
Chronically human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strain IIIB-infected human TH4-7-5 astrocytoma cells show low-level virus production. Cocultivation of TH4-7-5 cells with myelomonocytic cells led to active virus production in these target cells after a lag period, indicating cell-determined restriction of virus replication in the glial cells. HIV-1(More)
Vaccination with tumor-associated antigens is a promising approach for cancer immunotherapy. Because the majority of these antigens are normal self antigens, they may require suitable delivery systems to promote their immunogenicity. A recombinant vector based on the modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) was used for expression of human tyrosinase, a(More)
Besides macrophages and microglial cells, cells of astroglial origin are thought to be targets of HIV1 in the brain. HIV1 infection of astroglial cells results in restricted production of the virus. To analyse the molecular basis of this restricted infection phenotype, we established a chronically HIV1-infected low-producer astrocytoma cell line. These(More)
BACKGROUND Papillomavirus is the etiologic agent associated with cervical carcinoma. The papilloma E2 protein is able to regulate negatively the expression of E6 and E7 papilloma oncoproteins. Therefore, a new, highly attenuated vaccinia virus known as modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), which carries the papillomavirus E2 gene, was used for the treatment(More)
Endogenous retroviruses and retroviral elements represent a substantial component of vertebrate genomes. They are inherited as stable Mendelian genes and may be activated spontaneously or by physical or chemical agents. In the human genome various retroviral elements have been detected by their relationship with mammalian endogenous and exogenous(More)