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The most prominent EEG events in sleep are slow waves, reflecting a slow (<1 Hz) oscillation between up and down states in cortical neurons. It is unknown whether slow oscillations are synchronous across the majority or the minority of brain regions--are they a global or local phenomenon? To examine this, we recorded simultaneously scalp EEG, intracerebral(More)
Plastic changes occurring during wakefulness aid in the acquisition and consolidation of memories. For some memories, further consolidation requires sleep, but whether plastic processes during wakefulness and sleep differ is unclear. We show that, in rat cortex and hippocampus, GluR1-containing AMPA receptor (AMPAR) levels are high during wakefulness and(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVES The mechanisms responsible for the homeostatic decrease of slow-wave activity (SWA, defined in this study as electroencephalogram [EEG] power between 0.5 and 4.0 Hz) during sleep are unknown. In agreement with a recent hypothesis, in the first of 3 companion papers, large-scale computer simulations of the sleeping thalamocortical system(More)
The need to sleep grows with the duration of wakefulness and dissipates with time spent asleep, a process called sleep homeostasis. What are the consequences of staying awake on brain cells, and why is sleep needed? Surprisingly, we do not know whether the firing of cortical neurons is affected by how long an animal has been awake or asleep. Here, we found(More)
In an awake state, neurons in the cerebral cortex fire irregularly and electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings display low-amplitude, high-frequency fluctuations. During sleep, neurons oscillate between 'on' periods, when they fire as in an awake brain, and 'off' periods, when they stop firing altogether and the EEG displays high-amplitude slow waves.(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVE Sleep slow-wave activity (SWA, EEG power between 0.5 and 4.0 Hz) decreases homeostatically in the course of non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM) sleep. According to a recent hypothesis, the homeostatic decrease of sleep SWA is due to a progressive decrease in the strength of corticocortical connections. This hypothesis was evaluated in a(More)
Sleep is universal in animals, but its specific functions remain elusive. We propose that sleep's primary function is to allow individual neurons to perform prophylactic cellular maintenance. Just as muscle cells must rest after strenuous exercise to prevent long-term damage, brain cells must rest after intense synaptic activity. We suggest that periods of(More)
Regional aspects of sleep homeostasis were investigated in mice provided with a running wheel for several weeks. Electroencephalogram (EEG) spectra of the primary motor (frontal) and somatosensory cortex (parietal) were recorded for three consecutive days. On a single day (day 2) the wheel was locked to prevent running. Wheel running correlated negatively(More)
Sleep is regulated by the interaction of a homeostatic (Process S) and a circadian component. The duration of prior wakefulness is the main factor influencing subsequent sleep duration and its intensity. We investigated in the rat whether the sleep-wake history before sleep deprivation (SD) contributes to the effects of sleep loss incurred during the SD. A(More)
Regional differences in the effect of sleep deprivation on the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) may be related to interhemispheric synchronization. To investigate the role of the corpus callosum in interhemispheric EEG synchronization, coherence spectra were computed in mice with congenital callosal dysgenesis (B1) under baseline conditions and after 6-h(More)