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We investigated the diagnostic accuracy of brainstem MRI measurements in patients with different progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) syndromes and Parkinson's disease (PD). Using 3D T1-weighted images, midbrain, and pons areas, as well as superior (SCP) and middle cerebellar peduncle (MCP) widths were measured in 10 patients with Richardson's syndrome(More)
Mutations in the gene encoding copper/zinc superoxide dismutase enzyme produce an animal model of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS), a fatal disorder characterized by paralysis. Overexpression of the proto-oncogene bcl-2 delayed onset of motor neuron disease and prolonged survival in transgenic mice expressing the FALS-linked mutation in which(More)
Polygenic factors play important roles in animal models of substance abuse and susceptibility to dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Genetic factors are also likely to contribute to the etiology of human drug abuse disorders, and may alter human vulnerabilities to Parkinsonian neurodegeneration. The dopamine transporter (DAT; SLC6A3) is densely expressed by the(More)
Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC) or Fahr's disease is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by calcium deposits in the basal ganglia and other brain regions, which is associated with neuropsychiatric and motor symptoms. Familial IBGC is genetically heterogeneous and typically transmitted in an autosomal dominant fashion. We(More)
BACKGROUND Mutations in the alpha-synuclein (SNCA) gene have been shown to be responsible for a rare familial form of Parkinson disease (PD). Furthermore, polymorphic variants in multiple regions of the gene have been associated with susceptibility to idiopathic PD in different populations. OBJECTIVE To evaluate and to confirm the role of SNCA variants in(More)
The brain vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2) pumps monoamine neurotransmitters and Parkinsonism-inducing dopamine neurotoxins such as 1-methyl-4-phenyl-phenypyridinium (MPP+) from neuronal cytoplasm into synaptic vesicles, from which amphetamines cause their release. Amphetamines and MPP+ each also act at nonvesicular sites, providing current(More)
Long-term follow-up abdominal imaging studies have not been reported previously in patients with the hepatic form of Wilson's disease (WD). This paper reports the case of a 35-year-old woman with symptoms dating back several months and with multiple, nodular liver lesions. The lesions were hyperdense on non-enhanced computed tomography and hypointense on(More)
Administration of N-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) to mammals causes damage to the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway similar to that observed in Parkinson's disease. It has been suggested that the mechanism by which MPTP kills dopamine (DA) neurons involves an energy crisis due to the inhibition of mitochondrial complex I. In addition,(More)
The inheritance of focal dystonias was investigated in 43 families containing 43 index cases with torticollis (n = 21), blepharospasm (n = 18) and writer's cramp (n = 4). They generated a potential population of 235 first-degree relatives, and 168 out of 179 living first-degree relatives were examined. Ten relatives with dystonia were identified in ten(More)
OBJECTIVE Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) is a group of disorders characterized by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes in basal ganglia. Both missense and nonsense mutations have been found in such patients in a gene encoding the mitochondrial pantothenate kinase (PANK2). METHODS We completed a mutation screen in 72 patients(More)