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The xanthophyll cycle-dependent dissipation of excitation energy in higher plants is one of the most important regulatory and photoprotective mechanisms in photosynthesis. Using parallel time-resolved and pulse-amplitude modulation fluorometry, we studied the influence of the intrathylakoid pH and the xanthophyll cycle carotenoids on the PSII chlorophyll(More)
Flash-induced oxygen evolution in the thylakoids of plants and algae exhibits damped oscillations with period four. These are well described by the S-state model of Kok et al. [Kok, B., Forbush, B. & McGloin, M. (1970) Photochem. Photobiol. 11, 457-475], with damping provided by empirical misses and double hits in the reaction center of photosystem II. Here(More)
Flash-induced oxygen evolution in higher plants, algae, and cyanobacteria exhibits damped period-four oscillations. To explain such oscillations, Kok suggested a simple phenomenological S-state model, in which damping is due to empirical misses and double-hits. Here we developed an analytical solution for the extended Kok model that includes misses,(More)
Following addition of myxothiazol to antimycin-treated chromatophores from Rhodobacter sphaeroides poised at an ambient redox potential (E(h)) of approximately 300 mV, the amplitude of the flash-induced cytochrome c(1) oxidation in the ms range increased, indicating a decrease in the availability of electrons from the immediate donor to c(1), the Rieske(More)
The cytochrome bc(1) complex (commonly called Complex III) is the central enzyme of respiratory and photosynthetic electron transfer chains. X-ray structures have revealed the bc(1) complex to be a dimer, and show that the distance between low potential (b(L)) and high potential (b(H)) hemes, is similar to the distance between low potential hemes in(More)
The cytochrome bc(1) complex is the central enzyme of respiratory and photosynthetic electron-transfer chains. It couples the redox work of quinol oxidation and cytochrome reduction to the generation of a proton gradient needed for ATP synthesis. When the quinone processing Q(i)- and Q(o)-sites of the complex are inhibited by both antimycin and myxothiazol,(More)
Crystallographic structures of the bc1 complex from different sources have provided evidence that a movement of the Rieske iron-sulfur protein (ISP) extrinsic domain is essential for catalysis. This dynamic feature has opened up the question of what limits electron transfer, and several authors have suggested that movement of the ISP head, or gating of such(More)
Light activation of photosystem I (PS I) induces electron transfer from the excited primary electron donor P700 (a special pair of chlorophyll a/a' molecules) to three iron-sulfur clusters, F(X), F(A), and F(B) via acceptors A(0) (a monomeric chlorophyll a) and A(1) (phylloquinone). PS I complexes isolated from menA and menB mutants contain plastoquinone-9(More)
The interaction of the photosynthetic reaction center (RC)-generated ubiquinol with the ubiquinone-reducing center C of ubiquinol:cytochrome c2-oxidoreductase (bc1-complex) has been studied electrometrically in Rhodobacter sphaeroides chromatophores. The addition of myxothiazol inhibited the ubiquinol-oxidizing center Z, suppressing the phases of membrane(More)
Since available structures of native bc(1) complexes show a vacant Q(o)-site, occupancy by substrate and product must be investigated by kinetic and spectroscopic approaches. In this brief review, we discuss recent advances using these approaches that throw new light on the mechanism. The rate-limiting reaction is the first electron transfer after formation(More)