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The electrophysiological properties of atrioventricular (AV) nodal dual pathways have traditionally been investigated with premature stimuli delivered with right atrial pacing. However, little is known about the functional characteristics of AV nodal inputs outside of this context. Superfused rabbit triangle of Koch preparations (n = 8) and(More)
Heterogeneous gene expression in cardiac cells and tissues which requires targeted delivery of foreign DNA into selected cells or regions is needed for the development of novel therapies. Several techniques have been employed for targeted transfection, such as direct microinjection into cells or targeted electroporation. However, these techniques have(More)
Controlling cardiac chaos is often achieved by applying a large damaging electric shock-defibrillation. It removes all waves, without differentiating reentries and normal waves, anatomical and functional reentries. Anatomical reentries can be removed by anti-tachycardia pacing (ATP) as well. But ATP requires the knowledge of the position of the reentry, and(More)
BACKGROUND There is an effort to build an anatomically and biophysically detailed virtual heart, and, although there are models for the atria and ventricles, there is no model for the sinoatrial node (SAN). For the SAN to show pacemaking and drive atrial muscle, theoretically, there should be a gradient in electrical coupling from the center to the(More)
Electric shock is the only effective therapy against ventricular fibrillation. However, shocks are also known to cause electroporation of cell membranes. We sought to determine the impact of electroporation on ventricular conduction and defibrillation. We optically mapped electrical activity in coronary-perfused rabbit hearts during electric shocks (50 to(More)
Optical techniques have revolutionized the investigation of cardiac cellular physiology and advanced our understanding of basic mechanisms of electrical activity, calcium homeostasis, and metabolism. Although optical methods are widely accepted and have been at the forefront of scientific discoveries, they have been primarily applied at cellular and(More)
During failure of the sinoatrial node, the heart can be driven by an atrioventricular (AV) junctional pacemaker. The position of the leading pacemaker site during AV junctional rhythm is debated. In this study, we present evidence from high-resolution fluorescent imaging of electrical activity in rabbit isolated atrioventricular node (AVN) preparations(More)
A dual-pathway theory to explain atrioventricular-nodal (AVN) reentry has been proposed previously. However, the exact anatomical and functional correlates of the fast pathway (FP) and slow pathway (SP) have not yet been elucidated. We used optical mapping to reconstruct patterns of activation during retrograde conduction through the AVN and during AVN(More)
Fluorescent imaging has revealed that posterior nodal extensions provide the anatomical substrate for the dual-pathway electrophysiology of the atrioventricular (AV) node during normal conduction and reentry. The reentry can be intranodal, or as well as the posterior nodal extensions, it can involve an endocardial layer of atrial/atrial-nodal (A/AN) cells(More)
Defibrillation shocks are commonly used to terminate life-threatening arrhythmias. According to the excitation theory of defibrillation, such shocks are aimed at depolarizing the membranes of most cardiac cells resulting in resynchronization of electrical activity in the heart. If shock-induced changes in transmembrane potential are large enough, they can(More)