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Affective perception has been suggested to involve the coordinated activation of widely distributed cortical networks, including those involved in sensory storage/analysis and higher-order structures, such as the prefrontal cortex that regulate these processes. We measured regional electroencephalogram (EEG) activity while young adult participants viewed(More)
The capacity to associate neutral stimuli with affective value is an important survival strategy that can be accomplished by cell assemblies obeying Hebbian learning principles. In the neuroscience laboratory, classical fear conditioning has been extensively used as a model to study learning-related changes in neural structure and function. Here, we review(More)
OBJECTIVE Recent studies have noted personality differences among adult survivors of very preterm birth, including higher neuroticism and cautiousness and lower extraversion. We attempted to replicate and extend these recent studies by examining personality characteristics across multiple components of personality that traditionally define personality(More)
Social fearfulness is expressed on a continuum of severity from moderate distress to incapacitating fear. The present article focuses on the brain states associated with this broad dimension of social anxiety in humans. In total, 70 published studies are summarized documenting the neural correlates of social anxiety during states of rest, threat-related(More)
OBJECTIVES We examined the effects of extremely low birth weight (ELBW<1000 g) on adult brain functioning. METHODS We measured baseline regional EEG spectral power and hemispheric coherence in a cohort of 154 (M age=23 years) non-impaired young adults who were born at ELBW (n=71; M birth weight=874 g, M gestation age=27.5 weeks) and in a control group of(More)
Although previous studies have shown that socially anxious individuals exhibit greater relative right frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) activity at rest, no studies have investigated whether improvements in symptoms as a result of treatment are associated with concomitant changes in resting brain activity. Regional EEG activity was measured at rest in 23(More)
Coupling between EEG delta and beta oscillations is enhanced among anxious and healthy individuals during anticipatory anxiety. EEG coupling patterns associated with psychotherapy have not yet been quantified in socially anxious individuals. In this study, we used a double baseline, repeated measures design, in which 25 adults with a principal diagnosis of(More)
Previous findings have established that cortical sensory systems exhibit experience-dependent biases toward stimuli consistently associated with threat. It remains unclear whether safety cues also facilitate perceptual engagement or how competition between learned threat and safety cues is resolved within visual cortex. Here, we used classical(More)
Increasing evidence suggests that cross-frequency spectral coupling between slow (SW) and fast (FW) wave activity in the EEG supports information exchange between separate and functionally distinct neural systems. Further, evidence suggests that states of uncertainty, anticipation and anxious apprehension involve a high degree of SW-FW coupling. We examined(More)
Individual differences in attention biases for motivationally significant stimuli have been reported in clinical and normative populations. Few studies, however, have attempted to examine potential biological mechanisms underlying differences in the cognitive processing of emotional stimuli. The present study examined the extent to which two well-validated(More)