Vladimir M. Zatsiorsky

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We studied how the central nervous system (CNS) organizes outputs of effectors in a redundant motor task. During four-finger ramp force production, finger forces show positive covariations across trials at low forces, which turn into negative covariations at a critical force value (F(CR)). Subjects performed such tasks with different target amplitudes and(More)
We studied the coordinated action of fingers during static tasks involving exertion of force and torque on a handheld object. Subjects were asked to keep a handle with an attachment that allowed for independent change of the suspended load (0.5-2.0 kg) and external torque (0.375-1.5 N m) in a vertical position while applying minimal effort. Normal and shear(More)
During maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) with several fingers, the following three phenomena are observed: (1) the total force produced by all the involved fingers is shared among the fingers in a specific manner (sharing); (2) the force produced by a given finger in a multi-finger task is smaller than the force generated by this finger in a single-finger(More)
The finger pads of eight subjects were loaded by tangential displacement (x-perpendicular to the long axis of the finger) of a contacted surface when the distal and proximal interphalangeal joints (DIP and PIP, respectively) were alternately constrained. The finger pad responded in a linearly viscoelastic manner during loading, but exhibited highly(More)
When a standing person performs a movement such that the center of gravity shifts, the activity of postural muscles adjusts to keep the balance. We assume that such adjustments are controlled using a small set of central variables, while each variable induces changes in the activity of a subgroup of postural muscles. The purpose of this study has been to(More)
The objective of the study is to examine the effects of age and gender on finger coordination. Twelve young (24 +/- 8 yr; 6 men and 6 women) and 12 elderly (75 +/- 5 yr; 6 men and 6 women) subjects performed single-finger maximal contraction [maximal voluntary contraction (MVC)], four-finger MVC, and four-finger ramp force production tasks by pressing on(More)
The coordination of digits during combined force/torque production tasks was further studied using the data presented in the companion paper [Zatsiorsky et al. Biol Cybern this issue, Part I]. Optimization was performed using as criteria the cubic norms of (a) finger forces, (b) finger forces normalized with respect to the maximal forces measured in(More)
We consider the problem of what is being optimized in human actions with respect to various aspects of human movements and different motor tasks. From the mathematical point of view this problem consists of finding an unknown objective function given the values at which it reaches its minimum. This problem is called the inverse optimization problem. Until(More)
We studied the effects of practice of an unusual two-hand finger force production task on electromyographic and force responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Prior to practice, force production by a hand resulted in decreased TMS-induced responses in the other hand. After practice, fingers that were explicitly required to produce force during(More)
The authors studied the effects of surface friction at the digit-object interface on digit forces and moments when 12 participants statically held an object in a 5-digit grasp. The authors changed low-friction contact (LFC) with rayon and high-friction contact (HFC) with sandpaper independently for each digit in all 32 possible combinations. Normal forces(More)