Vladimir M. Zatsiorsky

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The aim of this study was to test Bernstein’s idea that motor synergies provide solutions to the motor redundancy problem. Forces produced by individual fingers of one hand were recorded in one-, two-, three-, and four-finger tasks. The subjects (n=10) were asked to produce maximal total force (maximal voluntary contraction, MVC) and to match a ramp total(More)
We studied how the central nervous system (CNS) organizes outputs of effectors in a redundant motor task. During four-finger ramp force production, finger forces show positive covariations across trials at low forces, which turn into negative covariations at a critical force value (F(CR)). Subjects performed such tasks with different target amplitudes and(More)
We studied age-related changes in the performance of maximal and accurate submaximal force and moment production tasks. Elderly and young subjects pressed on six dimensional force sensors affixed to a handle with a T-shaped attachment. The weight of the whole system was counterbalanced with another load. During tasks that required the production of maximal(More)
When a person produces isometric force with one, two, or three fingers, the other fingers of the hand also produce a certain force. Enslaving is the involuntary force production by fingers not explicitly involved in a force-production task. This study explored the enslaving effects (EE) in multi-finger tasks in which the contributions of the flexor(More)
A method of decomposing stabilograms into two components, termed rambling, was developed. The rambling component reveals the motion of a moving reference point with respect to which the body's equilibrium is instantly maintained. The trembling component reflects body oscillation around the reference point trajectory. The concepts of instant equilibrium(More)
Movements by a standing person are commonly associated with adjustments in the activity of postural muscles to cause a desired shift of the center of pressure (COP) and keep balance. We hypothesize that such COP shifts are controlled (stabilized) using a small set of central variables (muscle modes, M-modes), while each M-mode induces changes in the(More)
This article proposes a technique to calculate the coefficient of friction for the fingertip- object interface. Twelve subjects (6 males and 6 females) participated in two experiments. During the first experiment (the imposed displacement method), a 3-D force sensor was moved horizontally while the subjects applied a specified normal force (4 N, 8 N, 12 N)(More)
We studied the coordination of forces and moments exerted by individual digits in static tasks that required balancing an external load and torque. Subjects (n=10) stabilized a handle with an attachment that allowed for change of external torque. Thumb position and handle width systematically varied among the trials. Each subject performed 63 tasks (7(More)
We tested a hypothesis that humans can change patterns of finger force covariation in a task-specific manner in preparation to a change in the total force. Subjects performed quick targeted force pulses by pressing with four fingers on force sensors from a certain background force level to a target level. In self-paced trials, finger force modes(More)
 We studied the coordinated action of fingers during static tasks involving exertion of force and torque on a handheld object. Subjects were asked to keep a handle with an attachment that allowed for independent change of the suspended load (0.5–2.0 kg) and external torque (0.375–1.5 N m) in a vertical position while applying minimal effort. Normal and(More)