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Bacillus subtilis is the best-characterized member of the Gram-positive bacteria. Its genome of 4,214,810 base pairs comprises 4,100 protein-coding genes. Of these protein-coding genes, 53% are represented once, while a quarter of the genome corresponds to several gene families that have been greatly expanded by gene duplication, the largest family(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate deep and comprehensive analysis of gut microbial communities and biological parameters after prebiotic administration in obese and diabetic mice. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Genetic (ob/ob) or diet-induced obese and diabetic mice were chronically fed with prebiotic-enriched diet or with a control diet. Extensive gut microbiota(More)
The gut microbiota is involved in metabolic and immune disorders associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. We previously demonstrated that prebiotic treatment may significantly improve host health by modulating bacterial species related to the improvement of gut endocrine, barrier and immune functions. An analysis of the gut metagenome is needed to(More)
Growing evidence supports the role of gut microbiota in the development of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and low-grade inflammation. The endocrine activity of adipose tissue has been found to contribute to the regulation of glucose homeostasis and low-grade inflammation. Among the key hormones produced by this tissue, apelin has been shown to regulate glucose(More)
BACKGROUND Oral bacterial communities contain species that promote health and others that have been implicated in oral and/or systemic diseases. Culture-independent approaches provide the best means to assess the diversity of oral bacteria because most of them remain uncultivable. RESULTS The salivary microbiota from five adults was analyzed at three(More)
The tar genes directing the synthesis of poly(ribitol phosphate), the main teichoic acid in Bacillus subtilis strain W23, were sequenced. They are organized in two divergently transcribed operons, tarABIJKL and tarDF, as are the tag genes specifying poly(glycerol phosphate) synthesis in B. subtilis 168. The features of the tar genes as well as the putative(More)
The salivary microbiota is a potential diagnostic indicator of several diseases. Culture-independent techniques are required to study the salivary microbial community since many of its members have not been cultivated. We explored the bacterial community composition in the saliva sample using metagenomic whole genome shotgun (WGS) sequencing, the extraction(More)
Culture-independent high-throughput sequencing-based methods are widely used to study bacterial communities. Although these approaches are superior to traditional culture-based methods, they introduce bias at the experimental and bioinformatics levels. We assessed the diversity of the human salivary microbiome by pyrosequencing of the 16S rDNA V1-3(More)
BACKGROUND Human axillary odour is commonly attributed to the bacterial degradation of precursors in sweat secretions. To assess the role of bacterial communities in the formation of body odours, we used a culture-independent approach to study axillary skin microbiota and correlated these data with olfactory analysis. RESULTS Twenty-four Caucasian male(More)
The ggaAB operon of Bacillus subtilis 168 encodes enzymes responsible for the synthesis of poly(glucosyl N-acetylgalactosamine 1-phosphate) [poly(GlcGalNAc 1-P)], a wall teichoic acid (WTA). Analysis of the nucleotide sequence revealed that both GgaA and GgaB contained the motif characteristic of sugar transferases, while GgaB was most likely to be(More)