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The initial conversion of grape must to wine is an alcoholic fermentation (AF) largely carried out by one or more strains of yeast, typically Saccharomyces cerevisiae. After the AF, a secondary or malolactic fermentation (MLF) which is carried out by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is often undertaken. The MLF involves the bioconversion of malic acid to lactic(More)
Wine fermentation is a harsh ecological niche to which wine yeast are well adapted. The initial high osmotic pressure and acidity of grape juice is followed by nutrient depletion and increasing concentrations of ethanol as the fermentation progresses. Yeast’s adaptation to these and many other environmental stresses, enables successful completion of(More)
The study of gene expression and accurate quantitation of target genes in any organism depends on correct normalisation. Due to the increase in studies on Oenococcus oeni gene expression, there is a clear need for alternative reference genes in order to reliably measure expression levels. In this manuscript, we propose the approach of using multiple(More)
The top-view, two-dimensional spatial patterning of non-uniform growth in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast colony is considered. Experimental images are processed to obtain data sets that provide spatial information on the cell-area that is occupied by the colony. A method is developed that allows for the analysis of the spatial distribution with three(More)
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