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The fractional quantum Hall effect, where plateaus in the Hall resistance at values of h/nue2 coexist with zeros in the longitudinal resistance, results from electron correlations in two dimensions under a strong magnetic field. (Here h is Planck's constant, nu the filling factor and e the electron charge.) Current flows along the sample edges and is(More)
Besides the usual conductance plateaus at multiples of 2e(2)/h, quantum point contacts typically show an extra plateau at approximately 0.7(2e(2)/h), believed to arise from electron-electron interactions that prohibit the two spin channels from being simultaneously occupied. We present evidence that the disappearance of the 0.7 structure at very low(More)
Qubits, the quantum mechanical bits required for quantum computing, must retain their quantum states for times long enough to allow the information contained in them to be processed. In many types of electron-spin qubits, the primary source of information loss is decoherence due to the interaction with nuclear spins of the host lattice. For electrons in(More)
The quantum Hall effect arises from the interplay between localized and extended states that form when electrons, confined to two dimensions, are subject to a perpendicular magnetic field. The effect involves exact quantization of all the electronic transport properties owing to particle localization. In the conventional theory of the quantum Hall effect,(More)
Quantum computers have the potential to solve certain problems faster than classical computers. To exploit their power, it is necessary to perform interqubit operations and generate entangled states. Spin qubits are a promising candidate for implementing a quantum processor because of their potential for scalability and miniaturization. However, their weak(More)
Very much like the ubiquitous quantum interference of a single particle with itself, quantum interference of two independent, but indistinguishable, particles is also possible. For a single particle, the interference is between the amplitudes of the particle's wavefunctions, whereas the interference between two particles is a direct result of quantum(More)
One fundamental requirement for quantum computation is to carry out universal manipulations of quantum bits at rates much faster than the qubit's rate of decoherence. Recently, fast gate operations have been demonstrated in logical spin qubits composed of two electron spins where the rapid exchange of the two electrons permits electrically controllable(More)
An outstanding question pertaining to the microscopic properties of the fractional quantum Hall effect is understanding the nature of the particles that participate in the localization but that do not contribute to electronic transport. By using a scanning single electron transistor, we imaged the individual localized states in the fractional quantum Hall(More)
We demonstrate a quantum coherent electron spin filter by directly measuring the spin polarization of emitted current. The spin filter consists of an open quantum dot in an in-plane magnetic field; the in-plane field gives the two spin directions different Fermi wavelengths resulting in spin-dependent quantum interference of transport through the device.(More)