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The fractional quantum Hall effect, where plateaus in the Hall resistance at values of h/nue2 coexist with zeros in the longitudinal resistance, results from electron correlations in two dimensions under a strong magnetic field. (Here h is Planck's constant, nu the filling factor and e the electron charge.) Current flows along the sample edges and is(More)
Besides the usual conductance plateaus at multiples of 2e(2)/h, quantum point contacts typically show an extra plateau at approximately 0.7(2e(2)/h), believed to arise from electron-electron interactions that prohibit the two spin channels from being simultaneously occupied. We present evidence that the disappearance of the 0.7 structure at very low(More)
Determination of the path taken by a quantum particle leads to a suppression of interference and to a classical behavior. We employ here a quantum "which path" detector to perform accurate path determination in a two-path Mach-Zehnder electron interferometer, leading to full suppression of the interference. Following the dephasing process we recover the(More)
Qubits, the quantum mechanical bits required for quantum computing, must retain their quantum states for times long enough to allow the information contained in them to be processed. In many types of electron-spin qubits, the primary source of information loss is decoherence due to the interaction with nuclear spins of the host lattice. For electrons in(More)
Quantum computers have the potential to solve certain problems faster than classical computers. To exploit their power, it is necessary to perform interqubit operations and generate entangled states. Spin qubits are a promising candidate for implementing a quantum processor because of their potential for scalability and miniaturization. However, their weak(More)
The quantum Hall effect arises from the interplay between localized and extended states that form when electrons, confined to two dimensions, are subject to a perpendicular magnetic field. The effect involves exact quantization of all the electronic transport properties owing to particle localization. In the conventional theory of the quantum Hall effect,(More)
Metamaterials with negative refractive indices can manipulate electromagnetic waves in unusual ways, and can be used to achieve, for example, sub-diffraction-limit focusing, the bending of light in the 'wrong' direction, and reversed Doppler and Cerenkov effects. These counterintuitive and technologically useful behaviours have spurred considerable efforts(More)
We report the observation of an unpredictable behavior of a simple, two-path, electron interferometer. Utilizing an electronic analog of the well-known optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer, with current carrying edge channels in the quantum Hall effect regime, we measured high contrast Aharonov-Bohm (AB) oscillations. Surprisingly, the amplitude of the(More)
One fundamental requirement for quantum computation is to carry out universal manipulations of quantum bits at rates much faster than the qubit's rate of decoherence. Recently, fast gate operations have been demonstrated in logical spin qubits composed of two electron spins where the rapid exchange of the two electrons permits electrically controllable(More)