Vladimir I. Chefer

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Dopaminergic afferents arising from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are crucial elements in the neural circuits that mediate arousal, motivation, and reinforcement. Two major targets of these afferents are the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Whereas dopamine (DA) in the mPFC has been implicated in working memory and(More)
Drug addiction is a chronic relapsing disease in which drug administration becomes the primary stimulus that drives behavior regardless of the adverse consequence that may ensue. As drug use becomes more compulsive, motivation for natural rewards that normally drive behavior decreases. The discontinuation of drug use is associated with somatic signs of(More)
Genetic and pharmacological approaches were used to examine kappa-opioid receptor (KOR-1) regulation of dopamine (DA) dynamics in the nucleus accumbens and vulnerability to cocaine. Microdialysis revealed that basal DA release and DA extraction fraction (Ed), an indirect measure of DA uptake, are enhanced in KOR-1 knock-out mice. Analysis of DA uptake(More)
Despite an abundance of studies on mechanisms of behavioral sensitization, considerable uncertainty exists as to whether alterations in dopamine neurotransmission underlie the exacerbated behavioral effects of cocaine observed during the early stages of abstinence. One of the factors contributing to the uncertainty and controversy may be the limitations in(More)
Male rats were screened for their response to a novel environment and designated as high responders (HRs) or low responders (LRs). They then received daily injections of saline or cocaine (20 mg/kg, i.p.). Basal and cocaine-evoked extracellular dopamine (DA(ext)) levels as well as basal DA uptake rate and cocaine-evoked inhibition of uptake in the nucleus(More)
The technique of microdialysis enables sampling and collecting of small-molecular-weight substances from the interstitial space. It is a widely used method in neuroscience and is one of the few techniques available that permits quantification of neurotransmitters, peptides, and hormones in the behaving animal. More recently, it has been used in tissue(More)
The repeated, intermittent use of cocaine and other drugs of abuse produces profound and often long-lasting alterations in behavior and brain chemistry. It has been suggested that these consequences of drug use play a critical role in drug craving and relapse to addiction. This article reviews the effects of psychostimulant administration on dopaminergic(More)
Studies in experimental animals have shown that individuals exhibiting enhanced sensitivity to the locomotor-activating and rewarding properties of drugs of abuse are at increased risk for the development of compulsive drug-seeking behavior. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of constitutive deletion of delta-opioid receptors (DOPr)(More)
BACKGROUND Functional interactions between mu- and delta-opioid receptors (MOPr and DOPr, respectively) are implicated in morphine tolerance and dependence. The contribution of DOPr to the conditioned rewarding effects of morphine and the enhanced conditioned response that occurs after repeated morphine administration is unknown. This issue was addressed(More)
BACKGROUND The initiation of behavioral sensitization to cocaine and other psychomotor stimulants is thought to reflect N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-mediated synaptic plasticity in the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) circuitry. The importance of drug induced NMDAR mediated adaptations in ventral tegmental area (VTA) DA neurons, and its association with(More)