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The facultative intracellular bacterium Francisella tularensis is a highly virulent and contagious organism, and little is known about its intracellular survival mechanisms. We studied the intracellular localization of the attenuated human vaccine strain, F. tularensis LVS, in adherent mouse peritoneal cells, in mouse macrophage-like cell line J774A.1, and(More)
The highly virulent bacterium Francisella tularensis is well adapted to the intracellular habitat but the mechanisms behind its intracellular survival have been elusive. Recently, it was shown that the bacterium is capable of escaping from the phagosome of human and mouse monocytic cells. Here it is shown that this escape is affected by gamma interferon(More)
OBJECTIVES Alterations in the composition of the microbiota in the intestine may promote development of celiac disease (CD). Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) we previously demonstrated that rod-shaped bacteria were present on the epithelium of proximal small intestine in children with CD but not in controls. In this study we characterize the(More)
We have shown that gamma delta T cells in human gingiva have an intraepithelial location and, that in the chronic inflammatory disease periodontitis, the expression of CD45RO and CD8 or CD4 is induced on gamma delta T cells. To study the role of gamma delta T cells in local antibacterial responses, we determined the cytokine profiles of isolated human(More)
Immune evasion from NK surveillance related to inadequate NK-cell function has been suggested as an explanation of the high incidence of relapse and fatal outcome of many blood malignancies. In this report we have used Jurkat and Raji cell lines as a model for studies of the NKG2D receptor-ligand system in T-and B cell leukemia/lymphoma. Using real-time(More)
Mammalian pregnancy is an intriguing immunological phenomenon where the semiallogeneic fetus is not rejected. Tolerance toward the fetus involves a number of mechanisms associated with modifications of the immune status of the mother. In this study, we strongly suggest a novel mechanism for fetal evasion of maternal immune attack, based on the engagement(More)
Four carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule (CEACAM)s, i.e. CEA, CEACAM1, CEACAM6 and CEACAM7, are localized to the apical glycocalyx of normal colonic epithelium and have been suggested to play a role in innate immunity. The expression of these molecules in colon carcinoma cells was studied at the mRNA and protein levels after treatment(More)
BACKGROUND Behavioral laterality is known for a variety of vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Laterality in social interactions has been described for a wide range of species including humans. Although evidence and theoretical predictions indicate that in social species the degree of population level laterality is greater than in solitary ones, the origin(More)
Herein, we describe a novel approach in the search for prostate cancer biomarkers, which relies on the transcriptome within tumour exosomes. As a proof-of-concept, we show the presence of two known prostate cancer biomarkers, PCA-3 and TMPRSS2:ERG the in exosomes isolated from urine of patients, showing the potential for diagnosis and monitoring cancer(More)
During mammalian pregnancy maternal-fetal tolerance involves a number of immunosuppressive factors produced by placenta. Recently, placenta-derived exosomes have emerged as new immune regulators in the maternal immune tolerance. Exosomes are membrane nanovesicles with defined morphology, which are secreted from endosomal multivesicular bodies (MVB) upon(More)