Vladimir A. Novitsky

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CONTEXT Postnatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV) via breastfeeding reverses gains achieved by perinatal antiretroviral interventions. OBJECTIVE To compare the efficacy and safety of 2 infant feeding strategies for the prevention of postnatal mother-to-child HIV transmission. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS A 2 x 2 factorial(More)
Globally, human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) is extraordinarily variable, and this diversity poses a major obstacle to AIDS vaccine development. Currently, candidate vaccines are derived from isolates, with the hope that they will be sufficiently cross-reactive to protect against circulating viruses. This may be overly optimistic, however, given(More)
Replication-defective adenoviruses have been utilized as candidate HIV vaccine vectors. Few studies have described the international epidemiology of pre-existing immunity to adenoviruses. We enrolled 1904 participants in a cross-sectional serological survey at seven sites in Africa, Brazil, and Thailand to assess neutralizing antibodies (NA) for adenovirus(More)
BACKGROUND The ability of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) to inhibit human mitochondrial polymerase-gamma results in impaired synthesis of mitochondrial enzymes that generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by oxidative phosphorylation. This has been associated with several long-term mitochondrial toxicities, which include lactic acidosis(More)
BACKGROUND A single dose of nevirapine during labor reduces perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) but often leads to viral nevirapine resistance mutations in mothers and infants. METHODS We studied the response to nevirapine-based antiretroviral treatment among women and infants who had previously been randomly assigned to(More)
HIV-1C has become the dominant HIV-1 subtype in the global AIDS epidemic. Historically, the evolution of drug-resistant mutations was characterized primarily among antiretroviral (ARV)-treated HIV-1B infections. Whereas the non-B viruses are susceptible to the currently used ARVs, some differences between HIV-1 subtypes in response to ARV regimens have been(More)
OBJECTIVE The present study addressed two questions: what fraction of individuals maintain a sustained high HIV-1 RNA load after the acute HIV-1C infection peak and how long is a high HIV-1 RNA load maintained after acute HIV-1C infection in this subpopulation? DESIGN/METHODS Plasma HIV-1 RNA dynamics were studied in 77 participants with primary HIV-1C(More)
Virus-specific T-cell immune responses are important in restraint of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication and control of disease. Plasma viral load is a key determinant of disease progression and infectiousness in HIV infection. Although HIV-1 subtype C (HIV-1C) is the predominant virus in the AIDS epidemic worldwide, the relationship(More)
BACKGROUND Single-dose nevirapine given to women and infants reduces mother-to-child HIV transmission, but nevirapine resistance develops in a large percentage of women. OBJECTIVE To determine whether the maternal nevirapine dose could be eliminated in the setting of zidovudine prophylaxis. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A 2 x 2 factorial,(More)
Southern Africa is facing an unprecedented public health crisis due to the high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Vaccine development and testing efforts, mainly based on elicitation of HIV-specific T cells, are under way. To understand the role of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II alleles in HIV pathogenesis and to facilitate(More)