Vladimir A. Novitsky

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Globally, human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) is extraordinarily variable, and this diversity poses a major obstacle to AIDS vaccine development. Currently, candidate vaccines are derived from isolates, with the hope that they will be sufficiently cross-reactive to protect against circulating viruses. This may be overly optimistic, however, given(More)
The current AIDS pandemic represents the uneven spread of multiple genetically related subtypes (A to J) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Notably, HIV-1 E in southeast Asia and HIV-1 C in sub-Saharan Africa are expanding faster and are likely of greater global significance than the HIV-1 B subtype prevalent in the United States and Europe.(More)
To address whether sequences of viral gag and env quasispecies collected during the early post-acute period can be utilized to determine multiplicity of transmitted HIV's, recently developed approaches for analysis of viral evolution in acute HIV-1 infection [1,2] were applied. Specifically, phylogenetic reconstruction, inter- and intra-patient distribution(More)
The first aim of the study is to assess the distribution of HIV-1 RNA levels in subtype C infection. Among 4,348 drug-naïve HIV-positive individuals participating in clinical studies in Botswana, the median baseline plasma HIV-1 RNA levels differed between the general population cohorts (4.1-4.2 log(10)) and cART-initiating cohorts (5.1-5.3 log(10)) by(More)
BACKGROUND Aiming to answer the broad question "When does mutation occur?" this study examined the time of appearance, dominance, and completeness of in vivo Gag mutations in primary HIV-1 subtype C infection. METHODS A primary HIV-1C infection cohort comprised of 8 acutely and 34 recently infected subjects were followed frequently up to 500 days(More)
This study analyzed the distribution and prevalence of HIV-1 subtypes, multiplicity of HIV-1 infection, and frequency of inter-subtype recombination among HIV-1-infected female bar and hotel workers in Moshi, Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania, from 2004 to 2007. The HIV-1 viral sequences spanning the V1-C5 region of HIV-1 env gp120 were analyzed from 50 subjects(More)
In this paper, we review serological and molecular based methods to identify HIV infection recency. The accurate identification of recent HIV infection continues to be an important research area and has implications for HIV prevention and treatment interventions. Longitudinal cohorts that follow HIV negative individuals over time are the current gold(More)
The study estimated the prevalence of HIV-1 intra-subtype recombinant variants among female bar and hotel workers in Tanzania. While intra-subtype recombination occurs in HIV-1, it is generally underestimated. HIV-1 env gp120 V1-C5 quasispecies from 45 subjects were generated by single-genome amplification and sequencing (median (IQR) of 38 (28-50)(More)
To assess the level of intra-patient diversity and evolution of HIV-1C non-structural genes in primary infection, viral quasispecies obtained by single genome amplification (SGA) at multiple sampling timepoints up to 500 days post-seroconversion (p/s) were analyzed. The mean intra-patient diversity was 0.11% (95% CI; 0.02 to 0.20) for vif, 0.23% (95% CI;(More)
BACKGROUND Determining patterns of HIV transmission is increasingly important for the most efficient use of modern prevention interventions. HIV phylogeny can provide a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying HIV transmission networks in communities. METHODS To reconstruct the structure and dynamics of a local HIV/AIDS epidemic, the phylogenetic(More)