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Globally, human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) is extraordinarily variable, and this diversity poses a major obstacle to AIDS vaccine development. Currently, candidate vaccines are derived from isolates, with the hope that they will be sufficiently cross-reactive to protect against circulating viruses. This may be overly optimistic, however, given(More)
To better understand the virological aspect of the expanding AIDS epidemic in southern Africa, a set of 23 near-full-length clones of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) representing eight AIDS patients from Botswana were sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically. All study viruses from Botswana belonged to HIV-1 subtype C. The interpatient diversity(More)
CONTEXT Postnatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV) via breastfeeding reverses gains achieved by perinatal antiretroviral interventions. OBJECTIVE To compare the efficacy and safety of 2 infant feeding strategies for the prevention of postnatal mother-to-child HIV transmission. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS A 2 x 2 factorial(More)
Replication-defective adenoviruses have been utilized as candidate HIV vaccine vectors. Few studies have described the international epidemiology of pre-existing immunity to adenoviruses. We enrolled 1904 participants in a cross-sectional serological survey at seven sites in Africa, Brazil, and Thailand to assess neutralizing antibodies (NA) for adenovirus(More)
Southern Africa is facing an unprecedented public health crisis due to the high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Vaccine development and testing efforts, mainly based on elicitation of HIV-specific T cells, are under way. To understand the role of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II alleles in HIV pathogenesis and to facilitate(More)
Virus-specific T-cell immune responses are important in restraint of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication and control of disease. Plasma viral load is a key determinant of disease progression and infectiousness in HIV infection. Although HIV-1 subtype C (HIV-1C) is the predominant virus in the AIDS epidemic worldwide, the relationship(More)
BACKGROUND Single-dose nevirapine given to women and infants reduces mother-to-child HIV transmission, but nevirapine resistance develops in a large percentage of women. OBJECTIVE To determine whether the maternal nevirapine dose could be eliminated in the setting of zidovudine prophylaxis. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A 2 x 2 factorial,(More)
An evolving dominance of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype C (HIV-1C) in the AIDS epidemic has been associated with a high prevalence of HIV-1C infection in the southern African countries and with an expanding epidemic in India and China. Understanding the molecular phylogeny and genetic diversity of HIV-1C viruses may be important for the design(More)
HIV-1C has become the dominant HIV-1 subtype in the global AIDS epidemic. Historically, the evolution of drug-resistant mutations was characterized primarily among antiretroviral (ARV)-treated HIV-1B infections. Whereas the non-B viruses are susceptible to the currently used ARVs, some differences between HIV-1 subtypes in response to ARV regimens have been(More)
Antigen-specific lymphocytes are important in the immune response to viral infection. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) are traditionally used as a source of effector cells in most immunological studies. We described here the use of the bispecific monoclonal antibodies (BSMAB) anti CD3:CD8 (CD3,8) and anti CD3:CD4 (CD3,4B) to expand and selectively(More)