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Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), namely, embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), with their ability of indefinite self-renewal and capability to differentiate into cell types derivatives of all three germ layers, represent a powerful research tool in developmental biology, for drug screening, disease modelling, and(More)
DNA damage and mutagenesis are suggested to contribute to aging through their ability to mediate cellular dysfunction. The base excision repair (BER) pathway ameliorates a large number of DNA lesions that arise spontaneously. Many of these lesions are reported to increase with age. Oxidized guanine, repaired largely via base excision repair, is particularly(More)
The maize Zm-p60.1 gene encodes a beta-glucosidase that can release active cytokinins from their storage forms, cytokinin-O-glucosides. Mature catalytically active Zm-p60.1 is a homodimer containing five cysteine residues per a subunit. Their role was studied by mutating them to alanine (A), serine (S), arginine (R) or aspartic acid (D) using site-directed(More)
Statins, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors are commonly used drugs in the treatment of dyslipidemias, primarily raised cholesterol. Recently, many epidemiological and preclinical studies pointed to anti-tumor properties of statins, including anti-proliferative activities, apoptosis, decreased angiogenesis and metastasis. These(More)
In vitro human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) can differentiate into functional cardiomyocytes (CMs). Protocols for cardiac differentiation of hESCs and hiPSCs include formation of the three-dimensional cell aggregates called embryoid bodies (EBs). The traditional suspension method for EB formation from clumps(More)
Gametes carry the DNA that will direct the development of the next generation. By compromising genetic integrity, DNA damage and mutagenesis threaten the ability of gametes to fulfill their biological function. DNA repair pathways function in germ cells and serve to ameliorate much DNA damage and prevent mutagenesis. High base excision repair (BER) activity(More)
The inevitable accumulation of chromosomal abnormalities in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) during in vitro expansion represents a considerable obstacle for cell replacement therapies. To determine the source of chromosomal abnormalities, we examined hESCs maintained in culture for over 55 months for defects in telomere maintenance and DNA repair.(More)
The genomic destabilization associated with the adaptation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to culture conditions or the reprogramming of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) increases the risk of tumorigenesis upon the clinical use of these cells and decreases their value as a model for cell biology studies. Base excision repair (BER), a major(More)
The sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulator, fingolimod (FTY720), has been used for the treatment of patients with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis, but atrioventricular (AV) conduction block have been reported in some patients after the first dose. The underlying mechanism of this AV node conduction blockade is still not well-understood. In(More)