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Alum adjuvants have been in continuous clinical use for more than 80 yr. While the prevailing theory has been that depot formation and the associated slow release of antigen and/or inflammation are responsible for alum enhancement of antigen presentation and subsequent T- and B-cell responses, this has never been formally proven. To examine antigen(More)
Interactions between antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs) and T cells are essential for the induction of an immune response. However, during malaria infection, DC function is compromised and immune responses against parasite and heterologous antigens are reduced. Here, we demonstrate that malaria infection or the parasite pigment hemozoin inhibits T(More)
Abatacept modulates CD28-mediated T cell costimulation and is efficacious in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Its mechanism of action has not been fully elucidated but will likely reveal critical pathologic pathways in RA. We show that abatacept substantially modulated Ag-specific T and B cell responses in vivo. Ag-specific T cell proliferation(More)
In vivo imaging has revolutionized understanding of the spatiotemporal complexity that subserves the generation of successful effector and regulatory immune responses. Until now, invasive surgery has been required for microscopic access to lymph nodes (LNs), making repeated imaging of the same animal impractical and potentially affecting lymphocyte(More)
Extensive diversity in the human repertoire of TCRs for Ag is both a cornerstone of effective adaptive immunity that enables host protection against a multiplicity of pathogens and a weakness that gives rise to potential pathological self-reactivity. The complexity arising from diversity makes detection and tracking of single Ag-specific CD4 T cells (ASTs)(More)
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