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Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is currently defined as a cognitive/behavioral developmental disorder where all clinical criteria are behavioral. Inattentiveness, overactivity, and impulsiveness are presently regarded as the main clinical symptoms. The dynamic developmental behavioral theory is based on the hypothesis that altered(More)
The behavioral disturbances of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been attributed to dysfunction of the mesolimbic dopaminergic (DA) projection from the ventral tegmental area of the midbrain. DA released from terminals in the nucleus accumbens (interface between limbic and motor areas of the brain) draws attention to unexpected,(More)
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous, highly heritable, disorder resulting from complex gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. The defining symptoms of hyperactivity, impulsivity and impaired sustained attention are not unique to ADHD. It is therefore not surprising that animals with distinctly different neural defects(More)
The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) has behavioural characteristics which make it a suitable animal model for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The drugs of choice in the treatment of ADHD are methylphenidate and D-amphetamine. Using an in vitro superfusion system, we showed that both drugs released [3H]dopamine (DA) (and metabolites)(More)
An ideal animal model should be similar to the disorder it models in terms of etiology, biochemistry, symptomatology, and treatment. Animal models provide several advantages over clinical research: simpler nervous systems, easily interpreted behaviors, genetic homogeneity, easily controlled environment, and a greater variety of interventions.(More)
The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) has been proposed as an animal model for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The behavioural problems of ADHD have been suggested to be secondary to altered reinforcement mechanisms resulting from dysfunction of the mesolimbic and mesocortical dopaminergic systems. The present study therefore(More)
Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) are used as a model for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) since SHR are hyperactive and they show defective sustained attention in behavioral tasks. Using an in vitro superfusion technique we showed that norepinephrine (NE) release from prefrontal cortex slices of SHR was not different from that of their(More)
Neurotoxic drugs such as 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) have been used to mimic a Parkinsonian state in a rat model. The toxic effect of 6-OHDA has been shown to be reduced in rats that were forced to use the impaired limb immediately after unilateral 6-OHDA injection. The aim of this study was to determine whether dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra are(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease of nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) neurons that project from the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) to the striatum. To further understand PD, researchers have developed standardized animal models of PD. In this study, Long Evans (LE) rats were unilaterally lesioned by injection of the(More)
Although several molecular and genetic manipulations may produce hyperactive animals, hyperactivity alone is insufficient for the animal to qualify as a model of ADHD. Based on a wider range of criteria - behavioral, genetic and neurobiological - the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) obtained from Charles River, Germany (SHR/NCrl) at present constitutes(More)