Vivienne Ann Russell

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Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is currently defined as a cognitive/behavioral developmental disorder where all clinical criteria are behavioral. Inattentiveness, overactivity, and impulsiveness are presently regarded as the main clinical symptoms. The dynamic developmental behavioral theory is based on the hypothesis that altered(More)
An ideal animal model should be similar to the disorder it models in terms of etiology, biochemistry, symptomatology, and treatment. Animal models provide several advantages over clinical research: simpler nervous systems, easily interpreted behaviors, genetic homogeneity, easily controlled environment, and a greater variety of interventions.(More)
The behavioral disturbances of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been attributed to dysfunction of the mesolimbic dopaminergic (DA) projection from the ventral tegmental area of the midbrain. DA released from terminals in the nucleus accumbens (interface between limbic and motor areas of the brain) draws attention to unexpected,(More)
Although animals cannot be used to study complex human behaviour such as language, they do have similar basic functions. In fact, human disorders that have animal models are better understood than disorders that do not. ADHD is a heterogeneous disorder. The relatively simple nervous systems of rodent models have enabled identification of neurobiological(More)
The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) has been proposed as an animal model for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The behavioural problems of ADHD have been suggested to be secondary to altered reinforcement mechanisms resulting from dysfunction of the mesolimbic and mesocortical dopaminergic systems. The present study therefore(More)
Although several molecular and genetic manipulations may produce hyperactive animals, hyperactivity alone is insufficient for the animal to qualify as a model of ADHD. Based on a wider range of criteria - behavioral, genetic and neurobiological - the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) obtained from Charles River, Germany (SHR/NCrl) at present constitutes(More)
In this review, fatigue is described as a conscious sensation rather than a physiological occurrence. We suggest that the sensation of fatigue is the conscious awareness of changes in subconscious homeostatic control systems, and is derived from a temporal difference between subconscious representations of these homeostatic control systems in neural(More)
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous, highly heritable, behavioral disorder that affects ∼5% to 10% of children worldwide. Although animal models cannot truly reflect human psychiatric disorders, they can provide insight into the disorder that cannot be obtained from human studies because of the limitations of available(More)
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous, highly heritable, disorder resulting from complex gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. The defining symptoms of hyperactivity, impulsivity and impaired sustained attention are not unique to ADHD. It is therefore not surprising that animals with distinctly different neural defects(More)
Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) are used as a model for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) since SHR are hyperactive and they show defective sustained attention in behavioral tasks. Using an in vitro superfusion technique we showed that norepinephrine (NE) release from prefrontal cortex slices of SHR was not different from that of their(More)