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Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is currently defined as a cognitive/behavioral developmental disorder where all clinical criteria are behavioral. Inattentiveness, overactivity, and impulsiveness are presently regarded as the main clinical symptoms. The dynamic developmental behavioral theory is based on the hypothesis that altered(More)
The behavioral disturbances of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been attributed to dysfunction of the mesolimbic dopaminergic (DA) projection from the ventral tegmental area of the midbrain. DA released from terminals in the nucleus accumbens (interface between limbic and motor areas of the brain) draws attention to unexpected,(More)
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous, highly heritable, disorder resulting from complex gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. The defining symptoms of hyperactivity, impulsivity and impaired sustained attention are not unique to ADHD. It is therefore not surprising that animals with distinctly different neural defects(More)
The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) has behavioural characteristics which make it a suitable animal model for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The drugs of choice in the treatment of ADHD are methylphenidate and D-amphetamine. Using an in vitro superfusion system, we showed that both drugs released [3H]dopamine (DA) (and metabolites)(More)
An ideal animal model should be similar to the disorder it models in terms of etiology, biochemistry, symptomatology, and treatment. Animal models provide several advantages over clinical research: simpler nervous systems, easily interpreted behaviors, genetic homogeneity, easily controlled environment, and a greater variety of interventions.(More)
Although animals cannot be used to study complex human behaviour such as language, they do have similar basic functions. In fact, human disorders that have animal models are better understood than disorders that do not. ADHD is a heterogeneous disorder. The relatively simple nervous systems of rodent models have enabled identification of neurobiological(More)
BACKGROUND Current concepts of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) emphasize the role of higher-order cognitive functions and reinforcement processes attributed to structural and biochemical anomalies in cortical and limbic neural networks innervated by the monoamines, dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin. However, these explanations do not(More)
Maternal separation has been associated with development of anxiety-like behaviour and learning impairments in adult rats. This has been linked to changes in brain morphology observed after exposure to high levels of circulating glucocorticoids during the stress-hyporesponsive period (P4-P14). In the present study, adult rats that had been subjected to(More)
BACKGROUND Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly heritable developmental disorder resulting from complex gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. The most widely used animal model, the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), displays the major symptoms of ADHD (deficits in attention, impulsivity and hyperactivity) and has a(More)
Neurotoxic drugs such as 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) have been used to mimic a Parkinsonian state in a rat model. The toxic effect of 6-OHDA has been shown to be reduced in rats that were forced to use the impaired limb immediately after unilateral 6-OHDA injection. The aim of this study was to determine whether dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra are(More)