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AIMS To investigate the concentration-effect relationship and pharmacokinetics of leflunomide in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS Data were collected from 23 RA patients on leflunomide therapy (as sole disease modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD)) for at least 3 months. Main measures were A77 1726 (active metabolite of leflunomide) plasma(More)
The present study estimated the population pharmacokinetics of lamotrigine in patients receiving oral lamotrigine therapy with drug concentration monitoring, and determined intersubject and intrasubject variability. A total of 129 patients were analyzed from two clinical sites. Of these, 124 patients provided sparse data (198 concentration-time points);(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate the use of leflunomide in the Australian community since introduction in 2000. Trends in adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting were also studied. METHODS Annual Australian prescription and dispensing statistics were analysed. Drug utilisation was estimated as defined daily doses (DDD)/1000 inhabitants/day. ADR data from the Therapeutic(More)
Distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attack has turned into one of the major security threats in recent years. Usually the only solution is to stop the services or shut down the victim and then discard the attack traffic only after the DDoS attack characteristics (such as the destination ports of the attack packets) are known. In this paper, we introduce a(More)
—In this paper, we present the design, the implementation details, and the evaluation results of an intrusion detection and defense system for distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attack. The evaluation is conducted using an experimental testbed. The system, known as intrusion detection router (IDR), is deployed on network routers to perform online(More)
PURPOSE Evidence is growing that early use of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and combinations of these drugs provide optimal care for people with rheumatoid arthirits. The aim of this study was to describe objectively the pattern of consumption of DMARDs in the Australian community (community-based prescribing, specialist and general(More)
It is assumed that interventions to improve the adherence to insulin by allied health professionals discussing adherence to insulin will improve this adherence. However, there is little evidence to support this, as interventions by a pharmacist or nurse educator have not been shown conclusively to improve adherence to insulin.