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Epstein-Barr virus (EBV or HHV4), a member of the human herpesvirus (HHV) family, has recently been shown to encode microRNAs (miRNAs). In contrast to most eukaryotic miRNAs, these viral miRNAs do not have close homologs in other viral genomes or in the genome of the human host. To identify other miRNA genes in pathogenic viruses, we combined a new miRNA(More)
Using fluorescent membrane potential sensing dyes to stain budding yeast, mitochondria are resolved as tubular organelles aligned in radial arrays that converge at the bud neck. Time-lapse fluorescence microscopy reveals region-specific, directed mitochondrial movement during polarized yeast cell growth and mitotic cell division. Mitochondria in the central(More)
Myeloid blood cells are largely resistant to infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Recently, it was reported that Vpx from HIV-2/SIVsm facilitates infection of these cells by counteracting the host restriction factor SAMHD1. Here, we independently confirmed that Vpx interacts with SAMHD1 and targets it for ubiquitin-mediated(More)
The HIV-1 Vif protein counteracts the antiviral activity exhibited by the host cytidine deaminases APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F. Here, we show that defective vif alleles can readily be found in HIV-1 isolates and infected patients. Single residue changes in the Vif protein sequence are sufficient to cause the loss of Vif-induced APOBEC3 neutralization.(More)
Some human APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases have antiviral activity against HIV-1 and other retroviruses. The single deaminase domain APOBEC3H (A3H) enzyme is highly polymorphic and multiple A3H haplotypes have been identified. A3H haplotype II (A3H-hapII) possesses the strongest activity against HIV-1. There remains, however, uncertainty regarding the extent to(More)
Dengue virus (DENV) is a pathogen with a high impact on human health. It replicates in a wide range of cells involved in the immune response. To efficiently infect humans, DENV must evade or inhibit fundamental elements of the innate immune system, namely the type I interferon response. DENV circumvents the host immune response by expressing proteins that(More)
The HIV-1 pandemic is a complex mix of diverse epidemics within and between countries and regions of the world, and is undoubtedly the defining public-health crisis of our time. Research has deepened our understanding of how the virus replicates, manipulates, and hides in an infected person. Although our understanding of pathogenesis and transmission(More)
An estimated 50 million dengue virus (DENV) infections occur annually and more than forty percent of the human population is currently at risk of developing dengue fever (DF) or dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). Despite the prevalence and potential severity of DF and DHF, there are no approved vaccines or antiviral therapeutics available. An improved(More)
The meaning of viral blips in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patients treated with seemingly effective highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is still controversial and under investigation. Blips might represent low-level ongoing viral replication in the presence of drug or simply release of virions from the latent reservoir.(More)