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The complement system is an essential component of the innate immune system that participates in elimination of pathogens and altered host cells and comprises an essential link between the innate and adaptive immune system. Soluble and membrane-bound complement regulators protect cells and tissues from unintended complement-mediated injury. Complement(More)
Uncontrolled activation of the alternative pathway of complement is thought to be associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The alternative pathway is continuously activated in the fluid phase, and tissue surfaces require continuous complement inhibition to prevent spontaneous autologous tissue injury. Here, we examined the effects of(More)
Factor H is the primary soluble regulator of activation of the alternative pathway of complement. It prevents activation of complement on host cells and tissues upon association with C3b and surface polyanions such as sialic acids, heparin, and other glycosaminoglycans. Here we show that interaction with polyanions causes self-association forming tetramers(More)
Factor H (fH) is an endogenous negative regulator of the alternative pathway (AP) that binds polyanions as well as complement activation fragments C3b and C3d. The AP is both necessary and sufficient to develop collagen Ab-induced arthritis (CAIA) in mice; the mechanisms whereby normal control of the AP is overcome and injury develops are unknown. Although(More)
The high resistance of Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes, the causal agent of Chagas' disease, to complement involves several parasite strategies. In these in vitro studies, we show that T. cruzi calreticulin (TcCRT) and two subfragments thereof (TcCRT S and TcCRT R domains) bind specifically to recognition subcomponents of the classical and lectin(More)
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) cells are partially (type II) or completely (type III) deficient in GPI-linked complement regulatory proteins CD59 and CD55. PNH III erythrocytes circulate 6 to 60 days in vivo. Why these cells are not lysed as rapidly by complement as unprotected foreign cells, which normally lyse within minutes, remains(More)
Factor H (fH) is essential for complement homeostasis in fluid-phase and on surfaces. Its two C-terminal domains (CCP 19-20) anchor fH to self-surfaces where it prevents C3b amplification in a process requiring its N-terminal four domains. In atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS), mutations clustering toward the C terminus of fH may disrupt interactions(More)
The plasma protein factor H primarily controls the activation of the alternative pathway of complement. The C-terminal of factor H is known to be involved in protection of host cells from complement attack. In the present study, we show that domains 19-20 alone are capable of discriminating between host-like and complement-activating cells. Furthermore,(More)
A common single nucleotide polymorphism in the factor H gene predisposes to age-related macular degeneration. Factor H blocks the alternative pathway of complement on self-surfaces bearing specific polyanions, including the glycosaminoglycan chains of proteoglycans. Factor H also binds C-reactive protein, potentially contributing to noninflammatory(More)
Genetic variations in complement factor H (fH), an inhibitor of the complement alternative pathway (CAP), and oxidative stress are associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Recently, novel complement therapeutics have been created with the capacity to be "targeted" to sites of complement activation. One example is our recombinant form of fH,(More)