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The complement system is an essential component of the innate immune system that participates in elimination of pathogens and altered host cells and comprises an essential link between the innate and adaptive immune system. Soluble and membrane-bound complement regulators protect cells and tissues from unintended complement-mediated injury. Complement(More)
Uncontrolled activation of the alternative pathway of complement is thought to be associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The alternative pathway is continuously activated in the fluid phase, and tissue surfaces require continuous complement inhibition to prevent spontaneous autologous tissue injury. Here, we examined the effects of(More)
Factor H is the primary soluble regulator of activation of the alternative pathway of complement. It prevents activation of complement on host cells and tissues upon association with C3b and surface polyanions such as sialic acids, heparin, and other glycosaminoglycans. Here we show that interaction with polyanions causes self-association forming tetramers(More)
Factor H (fH) is an endogenous negative regulator of the alternative pathway (AP) that binds polyanions as well as complement activation fragments C3b and C3d. The AP is both necessary and sufficient to develop collagen Ab-induced arthritis (CAIA) in mice; the mechanisms whereby normal control of the AP is overcome and injury develops are unknown. Although(More)
The high resistance of Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes, the causal agent of Chagas' disease, to complement involves several parasite strategies. In these in vitro studies, we show that T. cruzi calreticulin (TcCRT) and two subfragments thereof (TcCRT S and TcCRT R domains) bind specifically to recognition subcomponents of the classical and lectin(More)
Factor H (fH) is essential for complement homeostasis in fluid-phase and on surfaces. Its two C-terminal domains (CCP 19-20) anchor fH to self-surfaces where it prevents C3b amplification in a process requiring its N-terminal four domains. In atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS), mutations clustering toward the C terminus of fH may disrupt interactions(More)
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) cells are partially (type II) or completely (type III) deficient in GPI-linked complement regulatory proteins CD59 and CD55. PNH III erythrocytes circulate 6 to 60 days in vivo. Why these cells are not lysed as rapidly by complement as unprotected foreign cells, which normally lyse within minutes, remains(More)
The plasma protein factor H primarily controls the activation of the alternative pathway of complement. The C-terminal of factor H is known to be involved in protection of host cells from complement attack. In the present study, we show that domains 19-20 alone are capable of discriminating between host-like and complement-activating cells. Furthermore,(More)
A common single nucleotide polymorphism in the factor H gene predisposes to age-related macular degeneration. Factor H blocks the alternative pathway of complement on self-surfaces bearing specific polyanions, including the glycosaminoglycan chains of proteoglycans. Factor H also binds C-reactive protein, potentially contributing to noninflammatory(More)
Factor H is a regulator of the alternative pathway of complement, and genetic studies have shown that patients with mutations in factor H are at increased risk for several types of renal disease. Pathogenic activation of the alternative pathway in acquired diseases, such as ischemic acute kidney injury, suggests that native factor H has a limited capacity(More)